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Our "call for proposals" was addressed mainly to international artists who live and work in Great Britain. The idea of the project consisted from the very beginning of such threads as movement, travelling, dislocation, emigration, multiculturalism, city, private and public sphere, collaboration as well as pursuing pleasure. The project consisted of 3 exhibitions in Poland and Great Britain, in which 35 artists presented their works. It was accompanied by a bilingual publication presenting the works.
Its beginning and at the same time the most important part was marked by a two-month artistic residency at the Pathos Transport Theatre in Munich in Germany.
During each of the three walks taking place throughout July the participants on one hand got to know the examples of sites related to the cultural versatility of the city, its monuments, architectural sights as well as e.
FORAGING It is a part of the project implemented in Septemberin which I presented a video, an installation and a series of photographic prints prepared especially for this occasion. The time when the cycle was created, that is autumn, partly determined its theme: I linked these issues with the reflection on the idea of gathering - understood as collecting fancy objects as well as collecting things as a means of survival of the poor and the homeless in a city.
The artists who express themselves on a daily basis through a variety of media and perform activities from sculpture or graphics to an object, presented a wide range of possible approaches to the understanding of action art. Within the project, organized by the BWA Art Gallery in Olsztyn, with support of the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage, throughout JuneOlsztyn hosted a variety of free events - workshops, sound walks, concerts, audio performances and film screenings.
All of those activities, led by experts invited from all over the country, allowed the participants to gain a more complete, multi-faceted understanding of sound in contemporary art and what sound is in the nearest surrounding. CNC mills use computer controls to cut different materials and they are able to translate programs consisting of specific numbers and letters to move the spindle to various locations and depths.
Many use G-code, which is a programming language that many CNC machines understand. These proprietary languages, while often simpler than G-code, are not transferable to other machines, CNC mills have many functions including face milling, shoulder milling, tapping, drilling and some even offer turning.
Standard linear CNC mills are limited to 3 axis, but others may also have one or more rotational axes, today, CNC mills can have 4 to 6 axes. Lathes are machines that cut workpieces while they are rotated, CNC lathes are able to make fast, precision cuts, generally using indexable tools and drills.
They are particularly effective for complicated programs designed to make parts that would be infeasible to make on manual lathes, CNC lathes have similar control specifications to CNC mills and can often read G-code as well as the manufacturers proprietary programming language.
CNC lathes generally have two axes, but newer models have more axes, allowing for more advanced jobs to be machined, plasma cutting involves cutting a material using a plasma torch 4. Rebar — Rebars surface is often patterned to form a better bond with the concrete. Rebar has been used in construction since at least the 15th century, more recently, during the 18th century, rebar was used to form the carcass of the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk in Russia, built on the orders of the industrialist Akinfiy Demidov.
The cast iron used for the rebar was of high quality, the carcass of the tower was connected to its cast iron tented roof, crowned with one of the first known lightning rods. More recently these techniques have been refined by embedding the steel bars in the concrete, concrete is a material that is very strong in compression, but relatively weak in tension.
To compensate for this imbalance in concretes behavior, rebar is cast into it to carry the tensile loads, rebar is also employed to confer resistance to concentrated loads by providing enough localized resistance and stiffness for a load to spread through a wider area.
Rebar may also be used to other steel bars in the correct position to accommodate their loads. External steel tie bars can constrain and reinforce masonry structures, as illustrated by the Nevyansk Tower or ancient structures in Rome, masonry structures and the mortar holding them together have similar properties to concrete and also have a limited ability to carry tensile loads.
Some standard masonry units like blocks and bricks are made with voids to accommodate rebar and this combination is known as reinforced masonry. Steel has a thermal expansion coefficient nearly equal to that of modern concrete, if this were not so, it would cause problems through additional longitudinal and perpendicular stresses at temperatures different from the temperature of the setting.
To prevent such a failure, rebar is either deeply embedded into adjacent structural members, or bent and hooked at the ends to lock it around the concrete and other rebar. This first approach increases the friction locking the bar into place, common rebar is made of unfinished tempered steel, making it susceptible to rusting. Normally the concrete cover is able to provide a pH value higher than 12 avoiding the corrosion reaction, too little concrete cover can compromise this guard through carbonation from the surface, and salt penetration.
Too much concrete cover can cause bigger crack widths which also compromises the local guard and this phenomenon is known as oxide jacking.
This is a problem where the concrete is exposed to salt water, as in bridges where salt is applied to roadways in winter.
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Even damaged bars have shown better performance than uncoated reinforcing bars, though issues from debonding of the coating from the bars. These bars are used in over 70, bridge decks in the USA, fiber-reinforced polymer rebar is also used in high-corrosion environments. It is available in forms, such as spirals for reinforcing columns, common rods. Most commercially available rebar is made from glass fibre reinforced thermoset resins 5. The product is called a 3D model and it can be displayed as a two-dimensional image through a process called 3D rendering or used in a computer simulation of physical phenomena.
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The model can also be created using 3D printing devices. Models may be created automatically or manually, the manual modeling process of preparing geometric data for 3D computer graphics is similar to plastic arts such as sculpting.
Individual programs of this class are called modeling applications or modelers, three-dimensional models represent a physical body using a collection of points in 3D space, connected by various geometric entities such as triangles, lines, curved surfaces, etc. Being a collection of data, 3D models can be created by hand, algorithmically and their surfaces may be further defined with texture mapping.
Actually, their use predates the use of 3D graphics on personal computers. Many computer games used pre-rendered images of 3D models as sprites before computers could render them in real-time, today, 3D models are used in a wide variety of fields.
The medical industry uses detailed models of organs, these may be created with multiple 2-D image slices from an MRI or CT scan, the movie industry uses them as characters and objects for animated and real-life motion pictures.
The video game industry uses them as assets for computer and video games, the science sector uses them as highly detailed models of chemical compounds. The architecture industry uses them to demonstrate proposed buildings and landscapes in lieu of traditional, physical architectural models, the engineering community uses them as designs of new devices, vehicles and structures as well as a host of other uses.
In recent decades the earth science community has started to construct 3D geological models as a standard practice, 3D models can also be the basis for physical devices that are built with 3D printers or CNC machines. Almost all 3D models can be divided into two categories, solid - These models define the volume of the object they represent. Almost all visual models used in games and film are shell models, solid and shell modeling can create functionally identical objects. Shell models must be manifold to be meaningful as a real object, Polygonal meshes are by far the most common representation.
Level sets are a representation for deforming surfaces which undergo many topological changes such as fluids 6.
SketchUp — It is available as a freeware version and a paid version with additional functionality. SketchUp is owned by Trimble Navigation, a mapping, surveying, there is an online library of free model assemblies, 3D Warehouse, to which users may contribute models.
SketchUp was developed by startup company Last Software of Boulder, Colorado, co-founded in by Brad Schell and it also has user friendly buttons to make it easier to use.
The program won a Community Choice Award at its first tradeshow inGoogle acquired Last Software on March 14, for an undisclosed sum, attracted by Last Softwares work developing a plugin for Google Earth. A toolbox enables a viewer to walk around and see things from different viewpoints and supports labels for models, a look-around tool, Google SketchUp Pro 6 introduced a beta version of Google SketchUp LayOut. LayOut includes 2D vector tools and page layout tools allowing presentations to be produced without the need for a presentation program.
Windows was no longer supported, on September 1, SketchUp 8 was released, with model geolocation with Google Maps and Building Maker integration. Mac OS X Tiger was no longer supported, neither the free version nor the professional version was available in a native format for Linux, or Mac OS earlier than The building designs themselves are saved in SKP.
A new site was provided, Extension Warehouse, hosting plugins and extensions for Sketchup, 3D Warehouse is an open library in which SketchUp users may upload and download 3D models to share. The models can be downloaded right into the program without anything having to be saved onto your computers storage, file sizes of the models can be up to 50 MB.
Anyone can make, modify and re-upload content to and from the 3D warehouse free of charge, since Trimble has launched a new version of 3D Warehouse where companies may have an official page with their own 3D catalog of products.
Trimble is currently investing in creating 3D developer partners in order to have more professionally modeled products available in 3D Warehouse, according to the Trimble, 3D Warehouse is the most popular 3D content site on the web. SketchUp comes in two editions, both are proprietary software, Sketchup Make, introduced in Mayis a free-of-charge version for home, personal and educational use.
Shop drawing — A shop drawing is a drawing or set of drawings produced by the contractor, supplier, manufacturer, subcontractor, or fabricator. Shop drawings are required for prefabricated components. Examples of these include, elevators, structural steel, trusses, pre-cast, windows, appliances, cabinets, air handling units, and millwork.
Also critical are the installation and coordination shop drawings of the MEP trades such as sheet metal ductwork, piping, plumbing, fire protection, shop drawings are produced by contractors and suppliers under their contract with the owner. The shop drawings should include information for the architect and engineer to compare to the specifications, the shop drawing should address the appearance, performance, and prescriptive descriptions in the specifications and construction drawings.
References to the documents, drawings, and specifications assist the architect. Ultimately, they are responsible for changes in these drawings and should have the opportunity to analyze any modifications, a dialogue should occur between the fabricator and the architect and engineer about any areas needing clarification.
Successful installations are the result of collaboration between the designer, fabricator, and contractor, dimensions, manufacturing conventions, and special fabrication instructions should be included on the shop drawing.
It should be clear to fabrication personnel what will be manufactured from the shop drawings alone, the construction documents are rarely used as a reference in fabrication, with the fabricators relying on the shop drawing for all information.
Most jobsite dimensions, such as the dimensions between two surfaces on the jobsite, need to be verified, a dimension may be shown on the construction drawings, but the actual dimension may vary, from very small to large increments, depending on jobsite conditions. It is extremely important that the fabricated item arrive on the ready to be installed without field modification.
Special care must be taken by the contractor to measure and verify dimensions, in new construction, plan dimensions usually are sufficient for ordering many fabricated items such as structural steel or precast concrete.
The earliest record of her comes from the ancient apocryphal Acts of Paul. Although Church Fathers Tertullian and Jerome rejected her story, she enjoyed great popularity in the Byzantine period, the Acts of Paul and Thecla is a 1st or 2nd century text, which forms part of the Acts of Paul but also circulated separately. She sat by her window for three days, listening to St. Paul and his teachings, St. Thecla was miraculously saved from burning at the stake by the onset of a storm and travelled with St.
Paul to Antioch of Pisidia. There, a nobleman named Alexander desired St. Thecla and attempted to rape her, St. Thecla fought him off, assaulting him in the process, and was put on trial for assaulting a nobleman. She was sentenced to be eaten by wild beasts but was saved by a series of miracles. While in the arena, she baptised herself and she rejoined the Holy Apostle Paul in Myra, travelled to preach the word of God and became an icon encouraging women to imitate her by living a life of chastity and following the word of the Lord.
She went to live in Seleucia Cilicia, according to some versions of the Acts, she lived in a cave there for 72 years. As she became a healer, the Hellenistic physicians in the city lost their livelihood, as they were about to take her, she called out to God and a new passage was opened in the cave, and the stones closed behind her. She was able to go to Rome and lie down beside St.
Pauls tomb, the Church Fathers recount a number of traditions about St.
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Macarius Magnes shortly after AD wrote how the message of Christianity was the Sword and he says that she received her instruction in divine and evangelical knowledge from St. Paul, and was eminent for her skill in sacred science. The martyrdom of St. Thecla is frequently referred to in the earliest Acts of the Martyrs, St. Eugenius, a martyr of Trebizond under Diocletian, couples St. Thecla with David and Daniel in his prayers. The exordium of the Acts of Polyeuctes refers to St.
Thecla and Perpetua, eugenia of Rome in the reign of Commodus is reported in the Acts of her martyrdom to have taken St. Thecla as her model. Paul is also a figure in the Acts of Paul. He is seen as a preacher of asceticism, but one with whom women are besotted and his teachings lead St.