All analyses were carried out on SAS University Edition (SAS/STAT®, SAS Institute Inc, NC, USA) and graphs were generated on MS Excel. immune phenotypic characteristics, such as the lack of expression of MHC class II and co‐stimulatory molecules belonging to the B7‐family. The Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu at that time was Ms J. Jayalalitha. Phone ownership in a typical lower socio-economic class family Fig. Both had met and friended each other via Selva's Facebook profile. 11 For a general history of mass communication in India, see Kumar, K. J. ; Vilanilam, J. V.
Raman was the Associate Professor and Head of Neurology. This medical center was dedicated as a national institute on 2[sup]nd January by Prime Minister Morarji Desai [Figure 3] and soon became an Institute of National Importance by an Act of Parliament in [Figure 4].
The origin of the institute dates back towhen the Royal Family of Travancore gifted a multistoried building for the people, and the Government of Kerala developed it into a hospital complex. At the Satelmond Palace, Poojapura, nearly 11 km away from this hospital wing, the Biomedical Technology Wing followed soon, again a gift from the Royal Family. Sree Chitra Tirunal Act,empowered the Institute to sponsor postgraduate programs of the highest quality in medical sciences, biomedical sciences, and biomedical engineering and stipulated that the medical degree, diploma, and other academic distinctions granted by the institute should be recognized qualifications confirming to the guidlines of the Indian Medical Council Act.
Postdoctoral programs in the institute were started in A deep and enduring interest in research and attempts at indigenous and innovative technology development through research have been the endeavor of the faculty and students alike.
Presently, the department has 50 beds with 4 operation suites. However, aneurysms were clipped and arteriovenous malformations AVMs and vestibular schwannomas were excised in this era with enviable results. Valiathan to head the Department of Radiology. During his tenure, he set high standards of quality for radiological investigations. After retirement of Dr. Pillay, the Neuroradiology Department was taken over by Prof. Rao, ably supported by Dr. Santosh Joseph, all of whom used to spend hours in the radiology suite interpreting angiograms and ventriculograms.
They had a hand-in-glove relationship with the neurosurgeons. The Department of Radiology of Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute can boast of having the first dedicated cath lab for cerebrovascular interventional procedures. Radiologists performed these procedures from as early as The Department of Neurosurgery is deeply indebted to the neuroanesthetist, Prof. Padmanabha Iyer and the pathologist, Prof. Radhakrishan for their contributions towards the department's progress.
Theodore Rasmussen, from the Montreal Neurological Institute. Equipped with this new armamentarium, the war against neurosurgical ailments only became stronger. This era saw the real emergence of aneurysm surgery and gross total tumor excisions. It was time to train neurosurgical residents and set new standards. Damodar Rout when the first batch of residents, Drs.
Ajay Gehlot and K. Krishna, joined the MCh Neurosurgery program in January Till date, 89 neurosurgical residents have been trained in the department [Table 1], and 12 are in training. Jain Head from Prof. Jain, an acclaimed microneurosurgeon working in Zurich with Prof. Yasargil, was invited by Prof. Valiathan to set the ball rolling in the new neurosurgery department at Sree Chitra Tirunal Medical Centre.
With an illustrious academic background involving research and clinical practice at the renowned McGill University, Canada, and at Harvard Medical School, he was undoubtedly an ideal choice to be the first mentor of the department. His vision helped in procuring the first OPMI microscope in at a cost of 5 lakh rupees good enough to buy 15 fiat cars in that era!
The monumental effort that Prof. During that period, Prof. Jain in earlythe department was left without a trained neurosurgeon for 6 months. It was by providence that in midDr. George Mathews took over the baton as head of the department [Figure 8]. He pioneered trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery for the first time in the country and was interested in surgery for degenerative spinal diseases, which he did with immaculate results.
Suresh Nair, to excel and set high standards. He set the stage for a microneurosurgical revolution and optimized the standard of neurosurgical procedures to world-class standards.
Damodar Rout Head from Prof. Valiathan realized that any major department cannot survive with just one senior faculty. He asked his friend and neurosurgeon, Dr. Gulati, Professor and Head of Postgraduate Institute Chandigarh, whether he could help him get a middle level neurosurgeon to the institute.
It was through Prof. Gulati's influence that Dr. Damodar Rout, who had returned to India after a 2-year stint in Iran, joined the department in June A tough taskmaster with a gentle heart is how we all remember Prof. His amazing skills, courage, and perseverance led SCTIMST to develop into a world-class cerebrovascular center, and he had operated on more than intracranial aneurysms during his tenure in the institute.
His collaborative work with the Biomedical Technology Wing of the Institute led to the development of Chitra shunt Ceredrain. He was keenly involved in creating animal models of cerebral vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage and finding the efficacy of urokinase in intracerebral hemorrhage.
He led by example and believed firmly in the establishment of the highest standards of care. His presence was inspirational to many neurosurgical stalwarts of today who have imbibed many neurosurgical skills from Prof.
He was very ably supported in all the neurosurgical educational endeavors by Prof. Annaporna Rout, a neuroanesthetist of the highest caliber. Bhattacharya Head from A tireless workhorse with sparse words, who took vascular neurosurgery to the next level, was Prof. Bhattacharya's scalpel and dissector spoke louder than his words.
He was always ready to cure many more patients with his scalpel, even at the fag end of a busy day. Under his guidance, a postdoctoral fellowship was started in cerebrovascular surgery.
Also, he was instrumental in starting endoscopic surgery in the department. Those societies that have met these needs for the majority of their people are certainly developed societies, good societies. They are essentially not those societies where one-fourth of the people enjoy the fruits of scientific progress and global development of comforts and the remaining three-fourths wallow in dirt and misery, poverty, ill health and ignorance and curse themselves and their Creator for their Fate. Despite 8—9 per cent growth in India, the country is still a poverty-stricken place and poverty is the most serious problem faced by Indians and by humankind.
The majority of her people are poor despite measuring poverty by any yardstick. The 11th Plan, he said: Its focus is on the most marginalized sections of the society.
Development Communication in Practice: India and the Millennium Development Goals
The goal is to invest in our people in order to enable them to become active participants in the economic growth processes. The Plan does not attempt to divide the people on the basis of caste, creed, religion or gender.
I will be failing in my duty if I do not draw your attention to the impending problem of food security, global trends in food production and prices and our patterns of consumption are going to put increasing pressure on both the availability and prices of basic food items.
In the same breath, the Prime Minister assured his audience that the 11th Plan would succeed in achieving the targeted 10 per cent growth by the terminal yearalthough he cautioned his listeners about the negatives of global development.
Growth and Development—are they the same? Does Growth mean Development? This book raises these questions after reviewing the history of Development and Development Communication for the past four decades. It takes up the question of the practice of Development Communication seriously and devotes one whole chapter to it. In the process it reviews most of the important past works relating to economic growth and development.
The book also deals with the concept of globalization, reviewing the remarks made by global scholars such as Jagdish Bhagwati, Amartya Sen and Joseph Stiglitz. Whatever helps in making poverty a subject of history is applauded by the book in the sincere hope that with the implementation of the new market ideas the world will become a better place to live in for the majority of the humanity.
The inadequacies of subsidies to the poor, the weakness and the inadequacy of the power sector, the serious rural—urban divide, the regional disparities and the poor quality and facilities for education in rural areas, the quality of health service and the infrastructure in rural areas, still force the rural people to migrate to distant urban areas.
Dick Wilson refers to the high priority given or not given to development agenda in the media in the s. It reminds us that the priorities highlighted by the Prime Minister at the NDC meeting recently are much the same as they were in the past decades. Chidambaram strongly advocated the dismantling of the old hierarchy of caste that pervaded every aspect of economic activity. It is evident from the remarks of both the Prime Minister and the Finance Minister that history is too much with us despite our attempt at globalization.
Equally important are land reforms without displacement of people and quick job generation for the majority. These issues continue to remain the highest priorities for development. As one of the Chief Ministers said soon after the NDC meeting, the 11th Plan has ignored job generation; other Chief Ministers have their own grievances, all of which relate to essential ingredients of economic development discussed in this book.
The media have to give special priority to these aspects of development. Are they really doing it now? This question is examined through empirical research in the last chapter of the book.
The readers can draw their own conclusions from the scientific analysis of the contents of two English newspapers and five Malayalam ones for a period of seven months, December to Junegiven in this book.
It is hoped that this book will open the eyes of the media magnates and media workers to the priorities of Development Communication in the light of the views of great thinkers of the world who have spent much time and energy on the sociology, economics and communication of development. I must record my great appreciation for the help given by Annie J. Vilanilam, my partner in life for the past 50 years. She took full charge of the management of the house and all matters related to home economics, besides rendering technical help to the extent possible while organizing this work.
I am also grateful to my daughter-in-law, Lulu, and grand-daughter Sheila for the timely technical help given. Thanks are due also to Ms R. Rajalakshmi for her excellent computer assistance for the last three years. This book is dedicated to two persons. First, Professor Dr John A. My distance education from the U.
Dr Lent's personal library at home is the repository of the best resources on Development Communication and it contains at the latest count about a 1,00, entries. Perhaps there is no such rich resource on Development Communication in any other part of the world. Second, this book is dedicated to a very well-known person in India who left us all rather suddenly on 17 December May I be permitted to recall the great encouragement given to me by that friend and well-wisher from SAGE.
I had the opportunity of cultivating his acquaintance soon after my return from the U. During all these 25 years I was fortunate enough to get his unstinted support in publishing five books through SAGE. He was not only a great editor but a brilliant entrepreneur, organizer and manager. He was a charming communicator with a deep and resonant voice and an unforgettable presence on India's television for many years. The five Malayalam newspapers in our study will follow the transliteration style as indicated below: Appendices [Page ] Appendix A: Basic Indicators of Development in Underdeveloped Societies: The Need for a New Approach among Communicators Rethinking development and its priorities is a necessity, particularly for development communicators who are conscientiously examining their changing roles.
They must raise questions which can in turn lead to establishing basic indicators for development. Since the terminology development journalism or development communication originated in Southeast Asia, the definitions given by the communication experts of this region have gained some credibility among academics throughout Asia.
Definitions also differ between different regions of the world depending upon the definer's point of view regarding development.
Social Media in South India | Shriram Venkatraman - tankekraft.info
A commonly used definition of development communication is the one given by Nora C. Development communication is the art and science of human communication applied to the speedy transformation of a country from poverty to a dynamic state of economic growth that makes possible greater economic and social equality and the larger fulfilment of the human potential.
Quebral Earlier definitions took for granted that communication of information about development activities and opportunities, along with [Page ]the diffusion of new modes of production, would raise levels of knowledge and participation in the development process. Quebral's definition served to correct that flaw, and the definition does raise a few pertinent questions: How is the grand transformation from poverty to a dynamic state of growth to be brought about?
How does one operate with the inadequate concepts of economic growth? Is mere economic growth enough? Has there not been such growth in many developing countries during the past two decades and if yes, why is poverty continuing to trouble these nations? Most development scholars and practitioners agree beyond doubt that mere growth without equitable distribution is a curse rather than a blessing. The noble goals of greater socio-economic equality and fulfilment of human potential envisaged in Quebral's definition have somehow eluded people.
The basic flaw in the approach to development based on economic growth is that it does not lay any special emphasis on the large segments of population which ought to benefit the most from such growth. Society in any country is not a monolithic, uniformly built edifice—it is a multi-tiered structure. Often the benefits of all plans and projects intended for its total growth, flow into sectors where the benefits of the past efforts at growth have already accumulated.
The end result is that there is an increasing and widening social gap—the rich get richer and the poor become poorer. Undoubtedly privileged access to information leads to a knowledge gap, which can be directly attributed to communication—distribution systems that are economically and socially biased.
This is described by Rogers in the second chapter of this volume in terms of the information-rich and the information-poor. It was assumed that society was not changing because the large majority did not have the right kind of information to facilitate change.
But the actual experience in many developing countries has been that simply disseminating targeted information through media assuming that all media were eager to carry information regularly does not in itself make people willing participants in the change process. It was also assumed that increased access to information would lead to greater participation in the political process and in turn, be beneficial to all sectors of the population.
Greater media usage, which assumes adequate media infrastructures to reach illiterates, was expected to lead to greater economic growth for all. All early development models upon which communication models rested were basically the offspring of Rostow's theory of the stages of economic growth. The pioneering contributions of LernerSchramm and Rogers and Svenning to the discussion of development among communication scholars were of immense importance in popularizing Rostow's concepts.