Wolfs animal swap meet 2015

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wolfs animal swap meet 2015

Wolf lake swap meet indiana. Flying with emotional support animals: The ups and downs of life in coach December 11, North Arkansas Rusty Wheels. WOLVES greeting in the WILD Wolf Call, Beautiful Wolves, Animals Beautiful, Beautiful Creatures Raven Swap Meet - Watercolor copy of my original. November 13, am EST There is a PBS special called Meet the Coywolf, a recent article in the Economist, and it is now trending on Facebook. Tests show that there are no animals that are just coyote and wolf (that is, This genetic swapping has happened more than once in their history; one.

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Click the button labeled Clear Sites. Swap meets are also prime locations for selling smuggled birds and other exotic animals some swap meets even explicitly advertise their sale of exotic birds.

These birds are often smuggled illegally into the country, where they are sold at swap meets and open air markets as a way to avoid registration and confiscation. For instance, thousands of parrots are smuggled illegally from Mexico into the United States every year. Swap meets are ideal venues for selling these illegally smuggled parrots since there are typically no licensing requirements for vendors.

Many swap meets explicitly prohibit the sale of horses and cattle, focusing instead on smaller animals like ducks, chickens, and rabbits. Especially for rural farming communities, swap meets can be a way to purchase needed livestock and sell extra animals. Individual Swap Meet Restrictions Despite a lack of government regulation, many swap meets impose their own restrictions on buyers and sellers.

Indiana Swap Meets

Sometimes this includes providing food, water, and sufficient space for the animals. Other times, however, swap meets are advertised informally on message boards with no restrictions. Before delving into these laws, however, it is worth exploring how previously enacted laws could be used to regulate swap meets, and how their shortcomings led states to address swap meets directly.

Animal Cruelty Laws Animal cruelty laws would obviously apply to swap meet vendors who are mistreating animals. Even though animal cruelty laws vary from state to state, egregious cases of animal cruelty are felonies in all fifty states. Some states make animal neglect a felony as well.

Swap meet prosecutions would probably rely on animal neglect laws, since a lack of adequate space, food, and water would most likely fall into that category. Some states punish specific forms of animal neglect that would be particularly applicable to swap meets. For instance, California penal codes prohibit impounding a domestic animal without necessary food and water for a prolonged period of time and keeping animals confined without proper exercise.

wolfs animal swap meet 2015

California also explicitly prohibits the sale of dogs under eight weeks old except under certain circumstances. Additionally, states like IllinoisMaineOregon and Michigan have the most stringent animal cruelty laws that specifically define standards of basic care that could be used to prosecute animal swap meet vendors and operators who are responsible for animal mistreatment. Predictably, however, lack of enforcement is the main barrier to using animal cruelty laws to regulate the treatment of animals bought and sold at swap meets.

Animal cruelty prosecutions are rare as it is, and persuading law enforcement to prosecute animal neglect cases may be challenging.

wolfs animal swap meet 2015

This is especially true when law enforcement decisions are made locally and there is an accepted culture of swap meets and the unregulated sale of animals. It is ultimately up to local law enforcement to enforce animal neglect laws, and because these cases are exceedingly rare, they are not a very effective vehicle through which to regulate swap meets.

Twenty-one of these states require pet store owners to obtain licenses before selling animals.

Wolf lake swap meet indiana

Other regulations vary significantly, and cover issues from sanitation, to food and water requirements, to prohibitions on the sale of unweaned animals. These laws and regulations typically do not apply to animal swaps. This definition would clearly exclude swap meets, which mostly sell animals for agricultural reasons and certainly sell animals bred and raised by the vendors. This definition could arguably apply pet store regulations to swap meets. However, this interpretation may be rejected because swap meets simply do not look like pet stores, and some would argue that the legislature did not intend to regulate swap meets when they decided to regulate pet stores.

Some states also regulate live animal markets, which are retail food markets where consumers purchase live animals in order to eat them.

Detailed Discussion of Swap Meet Laws | Animal Legal & Historical Center

These laws tend to regulate how animals are held before slaughter and how they are slaughtered. Although animal swaps do sell some animals for consumption, they are not generally retail food markets. Therefore, anti-cruelty measures codified in these laws do not protect animals sold at swap meets.

wolfs animal swap meet 2015

Locational Restrictions for Selling Animals Finally, some states prohibit the sale of animals in certain places, like on streets, highways, and boardwalks.

In other words, they prohibit the sale of animals in public spaces. These laws probably do not apply to swap meets, which organizers typically hold on private property. In fact, one common feature of a swap meet is that vendors and buyers must pay a fee in order to use the space.

Although many laws regulate the treatment of animals and various establishments that handle animals, there is a legal vacuum for animal swap meets. The scarcity of animal neglect prosecutions and political barriers to enforcing animal neglect laws make criminal sanctions a mostly unhelpful tool for regulating swap meets.

Additionally, pet store and live market regulations do not technically apply to swap meets. This leaves swap meets in a legal grey area where vendors and buyers are free to sell, trade, and buy animals with few restrictions.

Local Ordinances Some localities have adopted ordinances to regulate swap meets in their jurisdictions. In the s, several California ordinances distinguished swap meets from covered malls, with some of them banning swap meets altogether.

Prima County, Arizona and Memphis, Tennessee also have ordinances that prohibit the sale of animals at swap meets. The penalties for violating these ordinances are minimal e.

wolfs animal swap meet 2015

Other cities technically ban swap meets, but include major exceptions to the bans. Instead, they form a patchwork of outright bans often with major exceptions around the country. State Laws Regulating Animal Swap Meets At least five states CaliforniaNevadaVirginiaIllinoisand Nebraska have state laws that at least reference animal swap meets and regulate them in some way.

Some of these laws enact comprehensive restrictions while others are limited to specific animals or impose only procedural requirements. This section provides a brief survey of these laws and compares and contrasts their provisions.

This section does not include statutes that define swap meets for tax and revenue purposes only. Illinois Illinois was the first state to regulate swap meets when it amended the Illinois Diseased Animal Act in Illinois only requires swap meet organizers to provide the state information about the swap meet 30 days before it occurs. The law also requires organizers to maintain records that include information about the kinds of animals present and any transfers that took place during the swap meet.

California Health and Safety Code sections to were passed in and took effect in January of The law allows animals to be sold at swap meets only if the local jurisdiction has adopted standards for the care and treatment of the animals at the swap meet, including the transport of animals to and from the swap meet. Local ordinances must meet certain minimum requirements detailed in the statute, including sanitation, proper ventilation, adequate nutrition, disease prevention, adequate space, proper documentation, recommendations for the new owner, and a business license.

Any peace officer, animal control officer, or humane officer is authorized to issue this fine. Notable exceptions to the law include state fairs and stockyards, and the sale of cattle, sheep, swine, goats and equines in public markets. The laws also exempts dog, cat and bird shows that meet certain requirements.

Nevada InNevada added a section to its comprehensive animal cruelty statute that addresses animal swap meets. The Nevada law follows a similar structure to the California law, and requires animal swap meet vendors to operate in jurisdictions that have adopted local ordinances that meet certain minimum requirements.

wolfs animal swap meet 2015

A vendor who sells or attempts to sell an animal at a swap meet in violation of the law is guilty of a misdemeanor.

The minimum requirements for the local ordinances are not listed in the statute itself. These sections include a wide range of regulations. Finally, only section It requires a retailer or dealer to reimburse a purchaser and pay for certain expenses if the purchased pet has a terminal disease or condition that requires immediate hospitalization.

The incorporated cruelty laws also prohibit the sale of a diseased animal. It is unclear whether this means the ordinances cannot explicitly authorize cruelty or whether they must actively prohibit it. It does not apply to the sale or transfer of livestock or any event with a primary purpose of selling livestock or agricultural implements.

It also does not apply to outdoor adoption events for dogs and cats, or to people who do not charge fees for the adoption or transfer of animals that are properly vaccinated. This law essentially prohibits the sale of dogs and cats at swap meets anywhere in the state, but does not prohibit swap meets altogether or regulate the sale of any other kind of animal at swap meets.

Exotic animals include animals not commonly sold as livestock, like small mammals except dogs and cats and birds. The law requires venue organizers to obtain permits thirty days in advance, maintain detailed records, and ensure veterinary inspections are conducted. Important Features Analysis Of these laws, only Nevada and California address swap meets comprehensively.

Although they both regulate swap meets by requiring local ordinances to meet certain minimum criteria, those criteria are very different. The California law, which was enacted independently instead of tacked on to an existing law, details the criteria in the law itself and applies to all animals at swap meets.

The Nevada law, on the other hand, requires local ordinances to adopt most laws pertaining to the treatment of dogs and cats, which include very strict standards for confinement and nourishment. Limiting the minimum requirements to laws that impact dogs and cats does not force localities to regulate the treatment of most animals sold at swap meets. This is a bizarre way to limit ordinances since localities are bound by state anti-cruelty statutes anyway.

Conversely, if the ordinance has to explicitly prohibit acts of cruelty, it would at least provide an additional avenue for enforcement. The laws also impose significantly different penalties. The California law has a very limited penalty of a few hundred dollars, even for repeat offenders.

The Nevada law, on the other hand, makes violations a criminal offense. In short, the Nevada law is somewhat more limited and less clear than the California law, but it has more teeth.