Which sura was fully revealed at once?

The order of the revelation of the suras

Regarding the order of the suras, there are traditions that are recognized by great experts and for the most part have been handed down by Ibn Abbås. Such as a tradition that was told in his time by the scribe Ahmad Ibn Ya’qubi, also known as Ibn Våzih Ya’qubi (died in 292 after the Hejra). He received it from Muhammad Ibn Så’ib Kulbi, and he received it from Abi Sålih, and Abi Sålih received it from Ibn Abbås himself. [1]

Another example is a tradition that Muhammad Ibn Is’hāq Warāq, known as Ibn Nadim (died 385 h.q.) published in his book "Al-Fihrist". [2] Another tradition of Ibn Abbås reaches us through a scholar of the fifth century after the Hejra, the great keeper of the Quran, Ubaidullah Ibn Abdullah Ibn Ahmad, known as Hakim Haskåni Neyschåburi, who wrote the work "Shawåhid At-Tanzil". It was given to Abu Muhammad Mahdi ben Nazår Husseinie Qåyini, who passed it on to his student, Allameh Tabrasi, who himself wrote an exegesis of the Qur'an. Further traditions reached us through the work "Al-Iezåh" by the master Ahmad Zåhid [3], Imam Badr ed Din Zarkaschi, the first researcher in Qur'anic questions (died 794 hq) in his work "Al-Burhån fie Uloum Al- Qur'an ”(written in 773 hq), in which he deals extensively with traditions regarding the order and says:“ This has been revealed by the Qur'an, and I base this on trustworthy traditions. ”[4] Djalål ed-din Soyouti, a great scholar of his time (died 911 hq), passed on the order in his well-known work "Al-Atqån", and also cited an order that appeared in the book An-Nåsikh wal-Mansoukh by Abulhassan ben Hisår. Soyouti narrates the order of Djåbir ibn Zaid [5], whose narrations are recognized as complements of the narration of Ibn Abbås. [6]

Allameh Tabrasi and other experts also mention that the order of the suras has to do with the time of the revelation of the beginning of each sura. If several verses of a sura are revealed, and one or even more suras are fully revealed before its complete revelation, the order still has to take into account the time at which the beginning of the sura was revealed. The first five verses of Surah Alaq, for example, were written at the beginning of St. Prophets (s.) Revealed, and the rest only several years later. The same applies to suras like Al-Muddathir, Al-Muzzammil and others. The sura Al-Alaq is considered to be the first sura that was revealed, as reported by Tabrasi in his work Madjma ‘al-Bayån (volume 10, p. 405) from the book" Al-Iezåh "by Ahmad Zåhid.

The order of the suras was given by Ibn Abbås. This was completed by Djabir ibn Yazid, and this was corrected by several trustworthy traditions. [7]

Surah Al-Fåtiha does not appear in what Soyouti tells of Ibn Abbås. This was corrected on the basis of the traditions of Djabir ibn zaid, and also on the basis of what was written down in the work "The Ya’qubi Story". (Al-Atqån, volume 1, p. 25 and the Ya’qubi story, volume 2, p. 26).

Exceptional verses

Some experts at the time wrote in their works that verses appeared in some suras that do not correspond to the origin of the sura. For example, some suras revealed in Mecca contain verses that were revealed in Medina and vice versa. However, based on empirical evidence, we are convinced of the opposite, and every sura revealed in Mecca contains only Meccan verses, and every Medin sura contains only Medin verses. [8] Some examples are discussed here:

Example 1: It is said that in the sura Al-Maeda the verse: “Today the unbelievers have resigned to your faith; so do not fear them, but fear me. Today I have perfected your religion for you and completed My grace for you and have chosen Islam for you to believe ”[9] to St. Prophets (s.) Was revealed during Arafa. [10] This misconception arises from the fact that one sees the actual place of revelation as the criterion for the origin of a verse and assumes that every sura revealed in Mecca is to be considered Meccan, even if it is according to the Hejra of St. Prophet (s) has been revealed. The actual criterion for the origin of the verse is the Hejra and the Meccan / Medinic division is based on whether the sura was revealed before or after the Hejra.

Example 2: It is said that in the sura Al-Tawba the verse: "It is not up to the prophet and the believers to plead forgiveness for the idolaters, even if they were their closest relatives ... Abraham was certainly of a tender heart and meek" [11] revealed at the death of Abu Talib in Mecca has been, during St. Prophet (s) assured him that he would pray for his forgiveness. [12] This is only assumed by those who insist that Abu Talib left the world as an unbeliever. However, it has been proven by us that this claim is unfounded and just plain tendentious. What Tabrasi published in his exegesis is correct, namely that after the conquest of Mecca a group of Muslims devoted St. Prophets asked to pray for the forgiveness of their unbelieving fathers.

This very verse was revealed and expressly warned against it. [13]

Example 3: It is said that the first verse of Surah Yusuf is Medinic. Djalal ed din Soyooti doesn't think much of this claim, but it is strange that a personality like Abu Abdullah Zandjani should embrace it. [14] It is argued that this verse is Medinic: When the unbelievers living in Mecca asked the Jews to tell St. Asking prophets (s.) In Medina about Joseph, this verse was revealed. The fact is, however, that the whole story was revealed in Mecca. It makes no sense that only the beginning should have been revealed in Medina. It can of course also be argued that it was the Jews who asked the infidels and polytheists living in Medina to see St. To ask the prophets (s.) About the story of Joseph (as) and that this sura was revealed because of it.

 


[1] The Story of Jaqubi, Volume 2, Pages 26 and 35

[2] Ibn Alnadim, Alfihrist, d

[3] Die Tabrasi Exegese, Volume 10, pp. 405-406, see also Schawahid at tanzil, Volume 2, from p. 311

[4] Al-Burhan, Volume 1, p. 193

[5] Djabir Ibn Zaid is one of the famous scholars of Basra and is one of the great successors of the Companions of St. Prophet (s.) He narrated from Ibn Abbas and Akrama. He died in 103 after the Hejra. On that day, Qatada said: "Today the most well-read person in Iraq has died."

[6] Al-Atqan, Volume 1, pp. 22-29

[7] Zarkaschti classifies the Sura As-Saff after the Sura At-Tahrim and before the Sura Al-Jumua. The sura At-Tawba is placed after him before Al-Maeda, which is the last sura of St. Quran should be

[8] See Altamhid, Volume 1, pp. 169-237

[9] 5:3

[10] Tarikh Al-Qur’an, p. 27

[11] 9:113-114

[12] Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, p. 119 and Volume 6, p. 87

[13] The Tabrasi Exegesis, Volume 5, p. 76

[14] See Al-Atqan, Volume 1, p. 15 and Tarikh Al-Qur’an, p. 28

Sources: Quranic Studies, Knowledge, Muhammad Hådi