How do you say hard in Russian
Hard and soft consonants
Almost all consonants in Russian have both a hard and a soft (so-called palatalized) pronunciation. The difference between them is that with the soft / palatalized consonants the tongue remains a short fraction on the hard palate after the consonant has been articulated, so that the impression arises as if after the consonant there is a very short one j would be spoken to. This j However, it must not be spoken independently, but only hinted at.
The best way to imagine this phenomenon is to use the pronunciation of the gn in Kognak before, where the G is not articulated and after that n a j-like sound follows. Another example would be that ll in the word Billard, at the after l also a j-like sound follows.
Russian consonants and their pronunciation:
/ b /
/ v /
/ d /
/ ʒ / * 1
/ z / * 2
/ bʲ /
/ vʲ /
/ dʲ /
/ zʲ /
/ y /
* 1 voiced / sh / as in GaraGe
* 2 voiced / s / as in Rose
/ k /
/ ɫ / * 3
/ m /
/ n /
/ p /
/ r /
/ s /
/ kʲ /
/ lʲ /
/ mʲ /
/ nʲ /
/ pʲ /
/ rʲ /
/ sʲ /
* 3 See the explanation on the Russian l under the item on the pronunciation of consonants.
/ t /
/ f /
/ x / * 4
/ ʦ /
/ ʃ / * 5
/ tʲ /
/ fʲ /
/ xʲ / * 6
/ tʲɕ / * 7
/ ɕɕ * 8
* 4 like German ach
* 5 inscription: sch
* 6 like German ich
* 7 inscription: tjsch
* 8 inscription: schjtjsch
A consonant in Russian is pronounced soft / palatalized if
- a soft / joted vowel (я, ё, ю, е, и) follows (with the following vowel)
- if the letter ь follows (at the end of the word or with a following consonant)
As can be seen from the table above, the consonant letters ч and щ and й (= j) are always spoken softly / palatalized; the consonant letters ж, ц and ш, however, are always spoken harshly.
As with the meeting of voiced and unvoiced consonants, the first consonant is matched to the second in terms of the softness / hardness of the consonants. This means that soft / joted consonants are also spoken hard if they are immediately before a hard consonant.
Examples: конечно (koneschno - natural)
On the other hand, hard consonants are also spoken softly / jotized if they are immediately before a soft / jotized consonant.
Examples: мягкий (mjach’kij - soft), кончик (kon’tschik - tip), стена (s’tena - wall), здесь (z’des ’- here)
In Russian, some word combinations are spoken from two separate words. This is the case with
- Preposition + subsequent word
- Negative particle не, ни + subsequent word
- Question pronoun + subsequent word.
In these cases, the pronunciation adjustment for consecutive consonants also applies.
In the following chapter we will introduce you to the spelling in Russian.
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