Who are better businessmen Gujaratis or Marwaris

Dealing with urban cultural heritage in India using the example of ...

Preface

Pageinhe journey through India in year

2003 bin I fasziniert from this

Land, especially from the wealth

and the Diversity seinit's cultural heritage.

I saw how back in 2003

differently theHandlingWith historical

buildings inIndia he follows.

On the Search for einem thesis topic,

the preservation of monuments in

inIn dic context, I came across

to the chair for urban planning and

Design. E.in more friendly

Ganesh made in einon the notice

free diploma topics on the indishes

City of Hytheabad attentiveat thethat are in

Carried out as part of the SHAKTI project

could become.

I would like to thank you very much

this position with Peter Gotsch, the For

me, from ininitial conversation about the

Support with the Topic finding

until hin for accompaniment and support

while meinhe complete diploma time,

always mein first point of contact

was.

In the same place I would like to join

Prof. Alex Wall for the inintensive support

thank you for the project.

Also applies to the SHAKTI project managers,

Dr. Bärbel Schwaiger and Florian Rapp,

as well as the whole projectat the mein

Thanks for your support.

I would also like to join

Dr. Thank you Hannes Eckert, the me

valuable Hinwise on the subject

the Give monument care

could.

In the six weeks time inIndia

bin I count on a lot of helpful people

bumped, theen hospitality i

gladly accepted and the meinen stay

in Hytheabad to einem unforgettable

Let it become an experience.

Here applies mein deep thanks to the experts,

who took time for the interviews,

but also about it hinout

have supported.

Also to all the people who contact me

Authorities have access to information

have done, applies to mein Thanks.

About it hinoff applies to mein Thanks to the students

the JNTU who escorted me

and translation only possible

have done, eine survey at

Dealers inthe Perform old town

to be able to.

I also want meinhe Fat theilie and

meinthank en friends who understand

for the exciting, but also

timeinshowed intense work.

Finally, mein big thanks meinem

Husband Matthias, the me during the

mostly meinit research stay

accompanied and not even the

Lost my nerve when I did.

Thank you all!

iii


Table of Contents

E.inguided tour 1

context the Work 1

Objective 2

Procedure 2

construction the Work 3

Definition of terms 4

PART I ⏐ FROM THE SINGLE CENTER TO THE TODAY

SITUATION OF THE OLD TOWN OF HYDERABAD 7

A ⏐ Hytheabad- eine islat theical city inIndia 9

B ⏐ urban development phases 15

I. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE CITY IN 1591

UNDER THE QUTB SHAHI ROYAL DYNASTY 1498-1687 16

1. Framework conditionsin16

2. Political goals 16

3. Effects on the city 17

3.1 Urban space 17

3.2 City dwellers 19

3.3 City trade 20

3.4 Permanent Einrivers 20

II. MOGUL PERIOD UNDER AURANGZEB 1687-1724 21

1. Framework conditionsin21

2. Political goals 21

3. Effects on the city 21

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3.1 Urban space 22

3.2 City dwellers 22

3.3 City trade 22

3.4 Permanent Einrivers 22

III. EARLY NIZA PERIOD

UNDER THE ASAF JAHI DYNASTY 1724-1911 23

1. Framework conditionsin24

2. Political goals 24

3. Effects on the city 24

3.1 Urban space 24

3.2 City dwellers 24

3.3 City trade 25

3.4 Permanent Einrivers 25

IV. LATE NIZAMERIOD UNDER OSMAN ALI KHAN 1911-1948 26

1. Framework conditionsin26

2. Political goals 26

3. Effects on the city 26

3.1 Urban space 27

3.2 City dwellers 27

3.3 City trade 27

3.4 Remaining Einrivers 28

V. THE INDIAN UNION SINCE 1948 29

1. Framework conditionsin29

2. Political goals 29

3. Effects on the city 30

3.1 Urban space 30

3.2 City dwellers 30

3.3 City trade 30

3.4 Remaining Einrivers 30

VI. CONCLUSION 32

ii


PART II ⏐ THE OLD TOWN TODAY 35

location the Old town inwithin Hytheabads 36

Attachmentinmanure the Old town to thetheen urban areas 37

Limit determination the Old Town 39

A ⏐ general condinworked

for the HandlingWithurban Heritage 40

I. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS 42

1. Concept of monument in the context of urban cultural heritage 42

2. Sub-terms used below 42

II. STATE ORGANIZATIONS 44

1. Worldwide 44

1.1 Administration the List of monuments 44

1.2 Laws / regulations 44

2. Nationwide 45

1.1 Administration the List of monuments 45

1.2 Laws / regulations 45

3. State-wide 45

1.1 Administration the List of monuments 45

1.2 Laws / regulations 45

4. Local level 46

1.1 Administration the List of monuments 46

1.2 Laws / regulations 47

5. Comparison With the German system 47

III. NON-STATE MONUMENTS ORGANIZATIONS 50

1. Worldwide 50

2. Nationwide 50

3. Municipal level 50

IV. VALID MONUMENT PROTECTION REGULATIONS

FOR THE MONUMENT ZONE CHARMINAR 51

1. Regulations 51

1.1 Definitions from Law 51

1.2 Organization 51

1.3 Issue the Regulations 51

1.4 List of monuments 52

1.5 Finfinancing of maintenance measures 53

1.6 Construction project 53

1.7 Compensation through TDR 54

2. Guidelinit for the monument zone Charminar 55

3. Critical discussion 55

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V. VALID BUILDING REGULATIONS

FOR THE MONUMENT ZONE CHARMINAR 58

1. Land use plan 58

2. Building regulations 58

2.1 Number of floors 59

2.2 Density 59

2.3 Construction limits 59

3. Addat theversion 59

VI. CONCLUSION 61

B ⏐ city analysis

in the Hinlook at mothene and traditional structures 63

I. URBAN SPACE 64

1. Phenomena the whole old town 65

1.1 Urban morphological aspects 65

1.2 Monuments 67

1.3 Free spaces 73

2. Structural changetheungen the Old town at theexample

of the northwest quadrant and the locality Gulzar Houz 79

2.1 Building structure 79

2.2 Road structure 90

2.3 Structure of use 96

3. Building typologies 98

3.1 House 98

3.2 Commercial building 105

4. Addat theurban space 110

II CITY RESIDENTS 111

1. Religion and ethnic differences 112

1.1 Data collection Moslems-Hindus 112

1.2 Communities 114

1.3 Cultural differences 114

1.4 Conflicts Muslim-Hindus 115

1.5 Melting Pot Hytheabad? - Ethnic groups 116

1.6 Addat thevolume 117

2. Education and career 118

2.1 Illiteracy rate 118

2.2 Proportion of employed persons 118

2.3 Control paneltheinthe Old town 119

2.4 Addat thevolume 120

3. Relationship to living 121

3.1 Population change and reasons 121

3.2 Density 121

3.3 People per household 121

iv


3.4 Ownership 122

3.5 Survey on qualities and weaknesses the Old town 122

4. Addat thecity ​​dwellers population 123

III. CITY TRADE 124

1. Gesat thet overview of the trade inthe Old town 125

1.1 The location the Trading activities 125

1.2 The range of variants in trade 127

2. Product offering at theexample Lad Bazar and Patterghatti Road 131

2.1 Traditional goods 131

2.2 Structure in Themed bazaars 131

3. Commercial structures at theexample Lad Bazar and Patterghatti Road 132

3.1 Business structure and owner 132

3.2 Buyer structure 135

3.3 satisfaction Withthe Infrastructure 135

3.4 E.inposition to changetheugly 136

3.5 Addat thevolume the Results 137

4. Addat thecity ​​trade summary 139

IV. CONCLUSION 140

C ⏐ Current urban development projects 141

I. STATE ADMINISTRATIVE 142

1. Road WideninG inthe Old Town 142

2. Charminar Pedestrianization Project (CPP) 146

3. Heritage Walks 148

4. Tourism projects 149

II. CARED FOR BY NGO'S 150

1. Inventory project 150

2. Musi Riverside Project 150

3. Awareness Prograt theme 150

4th Heritage Award 150

III. MANAGED BY THE PRIVATE SIDE 151

1. Falaknuma Palace Hotel Project 151

2. Chowmahalla Palace Project 151

IV. CONCLUSION 152

D ⏐Rating of traditional and mothestructures 153

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PART III ⏐ THE OLD TOWN TOMORROW 155

A ⏐ Scenarios for the future development of the old town 157

I. TREND SCENARIO 159

1. Urban space 159

2. City dwellers 160

3. City Trade 161

4. Positioning in context the Gesat thecity ​​161

5. Evaluation 162

II. EXTREME SCENARIO TRADITION 163

1. Urban space 163

2. City dwellers 163

3. City trade 163

4. Positioning in context the Gesat thecity ​​164

5. Evaluation 164

III. EXTREME SCENARIO MODERNITY 165

1. Urban space 165

2. City dwellers 166

3. City Commerce 166

4. Positioning in context the Gesat thecity ​​166

5. Evaluation 166

IV. POSITIVE SCENARIO 167

1. Urban space 167

2. City dwellers 168

3. City Trade 168

4. Positioning in context the Gesat thecity ​​169

5. Evaluation 169

B ⏐ Strategies for implementing the positive scenario 171

I. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MODIFYING THE

FRAMEWORK CONDITIONS FOR THE MONUMENT AREA CHARMINAR 173

1. Goals 173

2. Proposed measures 173

2.1 Extension the Monument zone 173

2.2 Systematic inventory of the building stock 174

3. Modification the Monument regulations for monument zone 174

3.1 Old buildings 174

3.2 New buildings 175

3.3 HeWithold values ​​with traditional construction 175

4. Proposals for design rules 176

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II. RECOMMENDATIONS

FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MONUMENT CONSERVATION STRATEGY 186

1. Goals 186

2. Proposed measures 186

III. RECOMMENDATIONS

FOR ESTABLISHING A DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 188

1. Goals 188

2. Proposed measures 188

2.1 Urban space 189

2.2 City dwellers 202

2.3 City trade 202

IV. DISTRIBUTION OF

SUGGESTED MEASURES TO PLAYERS 203

V. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS 204

1. Timely coordinated course of the project 204

2. Transparency through projectsat the 204

3. Involvement the Residents and traders in the planning process 204

4. F.inannuity 205

5. Sustainable maintenance and care the Building 205

Closing words 207

List of Figures 209

Bibliography 211

Oral References 213

Appendix 214

vii


viii


“After 20 years, Charminar and other monuments remain. But the street character

will be gone fully. " (Turaga, expertsinterview)

E.inguide

WORK CONTEXT

The city of Hytheabad is developing

currently next to Bangalore for

second largest IT location Indias. due

she had this boom in the

last years ein enormous population growth

recorded. ThereWith

einhere comes the development of new ones

Quarters, ein strong increase in area

and eine series of structural changestheungen.

In this context, the einen

the question of how the historic old town

will develop in the future,

to thetheen through which suitable

Measures eine positive development

this range can be achieved

can. E.in This holds great potential

namely through seina rich treasure

at urban Cultural heritage in the historical

City plan, numerous monuments

and also the "ordinary"

historic residential and commercial buildings

is expressed.

In the about four o'clockthet-year history of the city

have for the most part islat theische

Ruling dynasties that only exist in the

Radius of Hytheabad worked for

Development einhe einunique, local

"Hytheabadi Culture ”.

The einpermanent shine the Old town is fading

but currently increasingly through

the traffic load, pollution

and the lack of adequate infrastructure.

The poor population structure

and the alongat thee decay the Building fabric

contribute to isolation the Old town

at. The current focus

on Monthenity and growth

leithe quickly already written

history in fall into oblivion

and so neglects the preservation and

Protection of the urban cultural heritage.

To meet the challengetheungen through

sustainable urban development strategies

to counter was dated

Federal ministerium for education and

Research (BMBF) the Prograt them

"Research for the Sustainable development

of the Megacities of Tomorrow "

developed and for the city of Hytheabad

realized the SHAKTI project.

SHAKTI (Sustainable holistic approach

& Know-how Tailored to India) is ein

interdisciplinaryinares project With German

and inDanish partners who addat themen

at the future urban development

Hytheabads work. To the

German institutes involved

also that led by Prof. Alex Wall

Institute for local, regional and state planning

the Karlsruhe Faculty of Architecture.

The project continues With the three

the following overarching goalsinatthe:

Concepts, strategies and tools

to manage growth

propose sustainable solutions

developed for urban infrastructure

1


ckel and thereby through the exchange

from gemeinsocial learning and

Benefit from planning processes.

As part of the Shakti project, meine

Work in context the sustainable

Urban development settled.

E.ine city can benefit from its long-term

benefit from urban cultural heritage. While

the creation einhe mothenen

Identity almost arbitrarily the whole

To multiply the world is, means

the operation With the historical

Structures einhe town the highlight

einunique features.

This howtherecognition value see

I in Times the Globalization as a big one

Potential, since eine city straight

through the skillful additionat themens game

of opposites like Mothenity and

Tradition in attractivenessinnt.

The city administration has in this regard

reacts and With Create einhe list of monuments

and laws einen frame

created for the protection of monuments.

E.in part the Old town became

in addition to other areas under monument protection

posed.

In totalat thetindic context sind the

Developments Hytheabads regarding

of monument protection of interest,

because gradually next to the national

monumentininterests also communal

Administrations and organizations

With the protection of urban

Employing cultural assets. The city administrations

by Hytheabad and Bombay

have the step the Monument laws

be the first to venture and be

cities as role models in the future

for the establishment of regulations

serve.

OBJECTIVE

aim the Work is it, eine recommendation

to give how to preservation

and care of the urban cultural heritage

can achieve sustainable. To do this must

eine strategy to be developed that

the old town in front of the Hinground the

current development Hytheabads

repositioned.

The work is initially intended to show how the

City of Hytheabad With her urban

Bypasses cultural heritage. How did it come about?

How much historical substance there is

still preserved today and in which one

Status? Which legal frameworkinworked

already exist?

What role do the different ones play

Urban space, city dwellers

and city trade for character

the Old town?

To the Let analysis and evaluation

draw conclusions for future developments

the Old town, also in context

the Gesat thetstadt, draw and recommendations

derive.

METHOD

Before starting the six week

Research stay developed on site

I ask the question and have

me on itinWiththrough literature search

einen provides an overview and the working methodology

designed.

Site inspections inthe Old town and

theen photographic and graphic

Documentation have einen part

the Time meinit stay in claim

taken. From the center point the

Old town, einem axis cross Withthe

Main attraction Charminar,

I explored the adjacent areas.

Focus on advanced

Analyzes then made the northeastern

Part, as well as the adjacent

two headsinshopping streets the Old town.

For the analyzes I have eine

2


Evaluation methodology developed that

the area hinvisibly more traditional

and mothener aspects.

I got hold of it through conversations on site

With competent organizations

einen overview of various

existing approaches to development

the Old town.

In the context of expertsinterviews

I met different actors the

City and received soWith also controversial

Answers that the different

roll the Experts | in HinView of the

Old town development confirmed. Around

make the answers comparable,

served me ein self-developed

Interview guide for conducting a conversation.

In addition to the more formal, recorded ones

Conversations turned out to be

inmore formal preliminary talks than sinnful.

In addition to the experts, many also clarified

conversations With another Hytheabadis

questions raised.

Parallel to the discussions and site visits

I visited authorities

Organizations, libraries and the

University for materials and information

about ongoing projects too

receive.

To also With the people out the

Old town inmore intense in To get in touch

and statements "at first hand"

regarding their needs,

I decided on eine survey

based on einit questionnaire. The

at the mostly through development projects

Provide affected group of people

for me the dealers from the two

Headinshopping streets. Through the

Definition the Survey of dealers

einhe product group einlow priced it

and high-priced segments,

I received einen cross-section

about eine trading group specific to the location.

The evaluation then took place in Germany

the Experts |interviews and

Dealer questionnaires and analysis

and evaluation of the ordered material.

E.inAnother part was the graphic

Elaboration the recorded on site

Documentations and

the additionat thesetting and completion

of map material, as well as the development

the Scenario models and elaboration

the Strategy after finished

Analysis and evaluation.

STRUCTURE OF WORK

The work is chronological in three parts

smoothedthet. The first part busy

yourself Withthe Urban development Hytheabads

and principles the Hinduistic

and islat theical urban structure,

soWith to create the prerequisites

today's additionat theunderstand the context

to be able to.

The the second part deals with today's

situation the Old town. In the first chapter

the framework conditionsinworked

to the HandlingWithurban heritage Site

shown.

The construction of inDanish monument protection system

will be explained first.

This is followed by ein

comparison With the structure the German

Monument authorities.

Thenin become insubstantive key points

the municipal monument regulations

Hytheabads that target the

Monument zone inwithin the Old town

Application, critically discussed.

The next chapter, the city analysis,

focuses on the lighting

motheand traditional structures.

Come to the spatial elements

nor the dimensions of city dwellers

and city trade hinto. These

carry as "actors" the City significantly

to theen character. Au-

3


In addition, there are these two levels

in especiallythehe interaction With

the urban cultural heritage, inthat she

einon the one hand, for its sustainable preservation

can contribute and totheon the one hand

even like itthe structurally

beeinbe flowing.

The Analysis follows the imagination and

rating the planned current

Urban development. For this purpose,

state side, by NGOs and by

the Private sector currently planned

Othe existing projects outlined.

this part the Work is done by eine

evaluation the Frameworkingung,

the einindividual levels the City analysis

and the Development projects related to

their expression hinvisibly

Tradition - Monthenity completed.

This forms the basis for the development

of scenarios in the third part

the Job, the yourself Withthe future

Old town development busy.

First of all, from the previously gained

Knowledge ein Trend scenario

derived and based on two

Extreme scenarios possible opposing

Developments shown. in the

Following this, ein Positive scenario

formulated, for its achievement in

extensive recommendations in the last section

are given.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

Urban heritage

"Monuments at least had the protection,

common buildings did not get

the recognition from the local people,

that they are valuable ”(Reddy, expertsinterview)

The Concept of urban cultural heritage

includes in the context meinhe work the

spatial historical character the

Old town. The historic center features

about einespeciallythes embossed

City plan and the result

resulting road course. The proportion

of the street space shines einen

especiallytheen character.

In addition to the monuments, the

historical "ordinary" living and

Commercial buildings With their decorated

Facades the city silhouette.

The after inswept building typologies

With Mirror courtyards

elements the islat theical culture withe.

In this Sinne includes eine conservation

of the urban cultural heritagein

the existing building fabric, sonthen

also the structural and spatial

Specialthewhites of the place that are

over centuriesthete hineducated away

to have.

The three dimensions of urban space, urban trade

and city dwellers

The Stay on site made quick

realized that it is not possible to go to the old town

alline on their spatial additionat thehangings

to reduce. Because

their character is also decisive

shaped by those staying there

People and the ones offered

Goods and services. In addition

the residents and traders play eine

big role in the Participation in the

Space. E.inon the other hand, ein special flair

by the great informal sector in

Form created by street vendors,

attheon the other hand sind the dealers and

Residents are the active co-creators the

City structure by structural, sometimes

also illegal ones, changestheungen.

E.ine evaluation takes place after the analysis

the E.incell factors according to "traditional"

and “mothen “, with this

Terms for the three dimensions

4


have different meanings.

· CITY RESIDENTS

The question about the city dwellers

supposed to be on the social character the Old town

einwalk.

I mean by city dweller

here in addition to the main actors,

the people who live here, too

these that only temporarily affect the urban space

fill whereWith both Hytheabadis

atthehe districts as well as tourists

gemeint sind.

The review the Ask about traditional

and mothen is not primarily used here

in relation to urban cultural heritage,

sontheRather, n refl ects how many

Opportunities for people to get through

offer this place. Monthenity becomes

here by factors such as example

Mobility and flexibility achieved.

· URBAN SPACE

The urban space includes aspects that

on the spatial character the Old town

Have an impact.

After Rob Krier 1 will the Urban space

geometrically demarcated from “different

erected house facades ”.

The clear readability the

basic geometric features and

aesthetic qualities leave the outside space

only experience it as an urban space.

In meinhe is also contemplated

still the consideration of the city plan

and the Building typologies,

so the Look "hinthe facades "

instead, so does the private urban space

to be able to grasp.

The review the E.inspecific aspects of the

Urban space from traditional to mothen

becomes in einen rightin historical context

einbound. The question, in which one

Dimensions of urban heritage still preserved

is, represents the main aspect the rating

represent.

· CITY TRADE

The Term city trade is on type and

Structure of trade inwithin the Old town

related and carried by seine

especiallythee characteristic decisive

to Gesat thetcharacter at.

The aspects considered include

here both the trading structures

and the offer as wellthee

Services like for examplethe

gastronomic sector. These will

also on the Scale from "traditional"

until "mothen “rated. Krier 2005, p.

1

24

5


PART I ⏐ FROM THE ENTRY CENTER

ABOUT TODAY'S SITUATION

THE OLD TOWN OF HYDERABAD

7


A⏐HYDERABAD - eine islat theical city inIndia

In Hytheabad have always lived

Muslims and Hinyou Witheinatthe. The

City stood anywayings until 1948 under

islat theical rule. since the time the

independence Indias won the

Hinduism, however, within the framework the democracy

increasingly to Einflow.

But what sind the basic

Differences - how is eine to islat theisch

Prinzipped city

understand which elements reflect

Hinduistic life withe?

This chapter aims to cover the basic