Is Shiva a dravidian god

Dravidian gods

In the southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala, special forms of the goddess or mother goddess are worshiped, which are often regarded as a form of the Parvati, Kali or Durga. The best known among them is probably Mariyamman.

Depiction of Virabhadra, the incarnation of Shiva's wrath, killing a demon. copyright

The origin of the Dravidian Goddesses can be found in the local stories, which are of paramount importance. They are the only sources that shed light on the history and development of this worship and also point to the reasons for this development. The legend of the seven sisters is comparable to that of other Dravidian gods. These stories are also related to other Hindu legends.

Goddess Mariyamman

Mariamma, Singapore - Sri Mariamman Temple, Copyright

Mariyamman (Tamil: மாரியம்மன் māriyammaṉ) literally means "rain mother" (Tamil: māri "rain", ammaṉ "mother"). She is worshiped as the goddess of smallpox and rain in southern India. There are many temples dedicated to her where she is depicted with two or four hands wearing a red robe. She will also be Mariamma, Mari, Marika, Amman and called Mahamaya.

Goddess Poleramma

The goddess Poleramma is worshiped and worshiped by the common people to protect the village. The shrine is outside the village and often on the bank of an irrigation tank. The shrine is made of clay and stone, often very simple. The temple of the goddess Poleramma can hardly be compared with the Shiva temples that are also in the villages. Poleramma is known as the goddess of smallpox in Andhra Pradesh. She is responsible for all difficulties in the village such as cattle diseases, drought and illnesses. A bloody sacrifice is used to appease the goddess. Some cactus leaves are placed on the wall next to the entrance gate, sometimes they are also placed over the door.

When Poleramma sees the cactus leaves, she will think the place is uninhabited, as no cactus leaves would grow on the wall in an inhabited place. A sheep or small buffalo is also tied to the bed of a dying resident. The animal is supposed to represent a sacrifice in the hope that Poleramma will be satisfied and leave the house.

Goddess Ankamma

Ankamma is very similar to Poleramma. It is also known as Angamma, Angalamma, and Ankalamma. It is represented by an unfinished stone image in a small temple outside the village. She is often described as the household goddess. As a household goddess, she is symbolized by a pot with a few bowls, small earthen cups and similar things in it. The bowls represent the teeth of devils and the cups represent the food they crave.

Goddess Dilli Polasi

Dilli Polasi is a household and village goddess. As a household goddess, she is represented by several pots stacked one inside the other and hung in a net. During domestic worship, the mother of the woman sends new clothes for her daughter and son-in-law. One or a group of related families take part in a public worship.

Goddess Bangaramma

The goddess Bangaramma does not have her own temple, but she has a place in the temple of the goddess Poleramma. Sometimes you can also find a small Bangaramma temple near Poleramma's temple and she has a small service there. Bangaramma's worship is similar to that of Poleramma's. It is believed that there is a connection between the name Bangaramma, "the golden one", and "gentle nature".

Goddess Poshamma

The goddess Poshamma is also considered the goddess of smallpox. The name "Poshamma" means "the nourishing one". She is a folk goddess who was worshiped through sacrificial rituals. Some villagers made offerings. There was a small procession led by a madiga beating a drum and several people took part. Then came two men of the washer caste, each carrying a lamb. The women then came, each with a brass utensil or drinking vessel and baskets containing food and other offerings. The entire group marched three times around the green tree under which the images of the gods stood, and stopped in front of them. The lambs were placed on the ground in front of the idols. The two women splashed some water on the images of the gods and then worshiped them. Now yellow, red and purple powder was applied to the images of the gods. Then each woman put a small sheet of rice in front of each portrait, poured ghee and quark over the food, and lit incense sticks. Then the images of the gods were worshiped again.

The sacrificial lambs were sprayed with a little water on their faces and colored powder was thrown on their nose and forehead. They were then released for a moment to see if they would shake their heads. Either to get the water out of their ears or to shake off their recent imprisonment, one of the lambs shook its head, signaling that the goddess was pleased with her sacrifice. The lamb, which did not shake its head, was again splashed with some water and colored powder. The washers grabbed a lamb and cut off its head. The blood was allowed to flow on the floor in front of the portrait. Then each forefoot was hung in front of the portrait. In addition to the already dangling feet of many different animals. This was probably done with the intention that the goddess would not forget her sacrifices.

As soon as the worship was over, the children were given food. The worshipers got the lamb, the launderers got the lamb's head, and the madiga got some money. The goddess was sacrificed in thanks for protection against smallpox.

Goddess Bandlamma

The goddess Bandlamma is considered to be the goddess of carts. The word "bandlu" means carriage. According to legend, she was a goddess of the city of Chandaluru, Nellore District. One day, Bandlamma followed a couple of wagons on their way to Madras. During the night they rested in the village of Ravuru near Ramapatnam. The goddess Bandlamma appeared in a dream to one of the charioteers from the village and told him that she had decided to change her place of residence. She promised to always protect the village if they would build a temple for her there and worship her.

Goddess Muthyalamma

Muthyalamma is worshiped in the Ashada month (June / July in the Hindu calendar) during the MahaKali festival in Telangana district. Big festivals are celebrated every weekend in Bollarum and Secunderabad in Andhra Pradesh. The worship of the deity Muthyalamma is identical to the worship of the deity Poleramma. During the pilgrimage, a clay picture is temporarily made to represent the deity, which is then trampled underfoot at the end. During this time the deity is worshiped to bring rain.

Goddess Mathamma

The deity Mathamma is worshiped by the Madigas. All other castes fear them, but also worship them. Since the Madigas are very poor, the worship of the goddess Mathamma is less complex than other deities. She is represented as a picture, on a small stone in a shrine. A buffalo is brought in for the "Jatara" (festival) and released on the day of determination. The picture is bathed and a sheep is sacrificed. The buffalo sacrifice takes place during the rest of the ceremonies. On the last day of the ceremony, the Madiga Pujari cuts off the head of the buffalo in front of the Murti. The buffalo is then held by the legs and the muggu (mandala on the floor) is wiped away in front of the murti. This will also remove the last traces of Mathamma's evil.

Goddess Renuka

The origin of the goddess Renuka is similar to the origin of the other goddesses. Worship and ceremony are similar to those of other Dravidian gods. Renuka is also known by the name "Yellamma", who is considered the fallen in the Hindu pantheon. Yellamma is the goddess of the rural people of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. According to legend, Yellamma is the incarnation of Kali who symbolizes the death of the ego and also the mother who cares for her children. The goddess is known by different names: Mahankali, Jogamma, Somalamma, Renukamata.

Kanaka Durgamma

Kanaka Durgamma is the form of the goddess Shakti, who is responsible for the common good of the whole village. Kanaka Durgamma is responsible for the welfare of the cattle and is appeased when the animals get sick. Sometimes she is also worshiped when there are diseases among people. There is a common way of worshiping Kanaka Durgamma. Some women become possessed by Kanaka Durgamma's spirit and jump into a well. The other people save them again. After that she runs to a Margosa tree and breaks off a few branches, stuck them in her mouth as if she had gone mad. People ask women about their identity because they want to know which spirit has taken possession of them. Then they inquire about their requirements. She makes her demands and people obey. The village carpenter makes a wooden picture from a branch of a Margosa tree. If the branch is cut, it is not allowed to touch the ground, otherwise it could become contaminated.

The picture is very rough. It is about two feet high and depicts a woman with a sword in her hand. Work should start in the evening and be finished before morning. When the picture is ready, it is placed in front of the water and remains there until the ceremony is over. Meanwhile, the Madigas are making a place in the grove outside the village. This place represents the temple that the goddess demands. The next day, in the morning, the village washers take the picture from the water and decorate it with devotion.

The image is now carried as it wanders through the village. The procession stops in front of each house and people bring out red colored water that represents blood. It is poured out in front of the portrait. Chicken is one of the main offerings that are made. The head of the chicken goes to the executioner, and those who make the sacrifice take the body for the feast. Then the portrait is carried into the wood and placed in the house. It is believed that the spirit of Kanaka Durgamma goes through the village again and sees it lonely, thinks that all the people are dead and therefore leaves it again. In Nalgonda, Kanaka Durgamma is not an intruder, she is instead viewed as the village deity.

The most famous story of the origin of Kanaka Durgamma is that she was a merchant caste woman who lived near Bezwada. She got sick and longed for meat during this time. Since she was not given meat, she later died. The cattle in the village began to die, and it was reported that Kanakamma had returned to satisfy their cravings for meat. She was soothed with blood and a temple was built for her. The word "durgamu" means a mountain fortress. Kanaka Durgamma is not a very ancient goddess.

Goddess Verdatchamma

The story of the goddess Verdatchamma, unusually, involves human sacrifice. When she lived on earth, she and her husband did not live together. That is a fact that has been historically proven. The fact that she did not live with her husband suggests an unusual condition in society. Perhaps she was called "Shakti" because of her demeanor.

Verdatchamma donated money to build a large tank that was supposed to lie between two large mountains. Now two graves were working to build this tank. Every day they dug, and every night the banks collapsed again. Legend has it that the two men were brothers who discussed the matter and quarreled about it. As they argued, their voices came from the depths of the tank. Two shepherd boys, named Pedda Kambudu and Chinna Kambudu heard this. They told the goddess Verdatchamma and offered themselves as sacrifices. The shepherd boys' only wish was that their memory be preserved. The shepherd boys were killed and two pipelines that carried water from the tank were named after them. The tank could then be completed without any problems.

Goddess Buchamma

The legend of the goddess Buchamma says that she was a very venerable woman. She was the daughter of a man belonging to the kamma branch of the Shudra caste. Once, when her husband was going to work in another village, a messenger came and told her that her husband had died. She didn't believe him and sent a messenger to make sure, but he came back with the same message. She hurried to the place and found the pyre for her husband. She did not allow the body to be burned. She constructed a new fireplace where her husband lay above her and she below and burned herself with him.

Four days later, her father passed the fireplace and saw a piece of Buchamma cloth that had not been burned. He turned it over, stick in hand. That night, the spirit of Buchamma awoke and told her father that she was dishonored by the touch and that she needed cleansing. Her father went to the fire place and found her jewels and a marriage symbol. He cleaned it up and put it in a saucepan. This pot was believed to have magical powers, and many people began to worship the pot. Worship intensified, a temple was erected, a stone statue was created, and thus she became a regular village goddess.

Goddess Lingamma

Lingamma also has a local legend associated with it. A woman named "Lingamma" lived in Mupparazuvaripalem. She belonged to the Shudra caste (fourth caste of servants). She and her husband were poor. They worked in the house of a rich man of the same caste. And so it so happened that some valuables disappeared in the house, and Lingamma was suspected. Her employer decided to take legal action against her. She ended the matter by jumping into a well and drowning herself.

Only a few days after her death, household troubles began to surface. Lingamma later appeared to the landlord in a dream and told him that because of his cruelty she had conjured up all these things. She threatened him with serious disasters if he did not worship her. When she didn't like his answer, she immediately brought cholera to the village. Then a temple was built for her. At first she was seen as a devil, but later she was included in the Perantalu worship (woman's ritual).

Goddess Usuramma

The origin of the goddess Usuramma is undefined. Usuramma was a woman who was known for her good deeds. She died before her husband. After her death there was an epidemic in the village. Her spirit took possession of a fortuneteller, and she spoke to the people through him. If she is not worshiped, there will continue to be trouble in the village. She commissioned the building of a shrine outside the village where the beating of the grain and the crowing of the roosters would not bother her.

Goddess Tota Kuramma

Tota Kuramma is a Shakti (female elemental force of the universe). Once there was a great festival in a Hindu's house. He was not a Brahmin and his family prepared mutton and pork for a feast. While they were eating, a begging Molsem came with his wife and asked for alms. The family invited the two to eat with them. They accepted the invitation. But in the curry they offered them there was pork. The beggars were very angry and drowned themselves in a well. They have been wandering demons ever since.

God Nattarayan

The origin of the demons at Nattarayan Temple is also attributed to a local story. Many years ago a brahmin and a shudra met at a place where there was a shrine dedicated to the jungle demon Peycchiammon. There was also a woman in this story. Because of their infidelity, the brahmin decided to become a hermit and die in the forest. Since the shudra was his friend, he decided to do the same. They lived in a small hut for the rest of their lives. After they died, some of their followers built two shrines in their memory. One shrine was dedicated to the deity Nattarayan the Brahmin and the other to the deity Virabhadra for the Shudra.

Virabhadra

Virabhadra, also known as Munniyappan, is an incarnation of Shiva's wrath. It has been proven that the Dravids adopted this god as one of their local gods. Today he is considered to be one of the most terrible demons of all. He and the original Dravidian gods have the power to drive away evil spirits.

See also

Did you know Here in the wiki there is also a list of gods names from A-Z - with names of gods and goddesses from different parts of the world - with direct clickable links.

literature

  • Brahma - god of creation
  • Difference Between Brahma and Brahman?
  • Gods and Goddesses in Hinduism by Swami Sivananda
  • The imagery of Hinduism
  • SHIVA - The wild, kind God by Wolf-Dieter Storl
  • Gods and Goddesses in Hinduism by Swami Sivananda
  • Hinduism
  • Vedanta for Beginners by Swami Sivananda
  • Vedanta - The Ocean of Wisdom by Swami Vivekananda
  • Paul Deussen: Das System des Vedanta, Elibron Classics, 2nd edition, 1906.
  • Soami Divyanand: Vedamrit - The message of the Vedas. ISBN 3-926696-03-6 (Translation of the Vedas in German, Vol. 1); ISBN 3-926696-13-3 (Vol. 2); ISBN 3-926696-26-5 (Vol. 3)
  • Wilfried Huchzermeyer: The Scriptures of India - History of Sanskrit Literature.(edition-sawitri.de) ISBN 3-931172-22-8
  • Moritz Winternitz: History of Indian Literature, Leipzig, 1905-1922, Vol. I - III. Reprint in English translation: Maurice Winternitz: History of Indian Literature, Motilal Barnarsidass, Delhi, 1985, Vol I - III
  • Aurobindo: The secret of the Veda, 2nd edition 1997, Hinder + Deelmann, ISBN 3-873481-65-0
  • Lokamanya Bâl Gangâdhar Tilak: Orion or Recherches sur l'Antiquité des Védas, Milan, Éditions Archè, 1989

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