Chapter 5 language and meaning helping minds meet

chapter 5 language and meaning helping minds meet

Chapter 5 Balance your learning–do deliberate study of language . 2 learning from meaning-focused output (speaking and writing) .. opportunities to meet these words to help learn them, and if you look them up in a .. speaking to them in your mind, polishing the conversation until you are happy with it. Chapter 4: Communicating With Words: Helping Minds Meet 80 The Internet and 77 Language Is Alive: We Use Words to Share Meaning 81 Words, Things, and Practice Thinking Critically About Language Use Chapter 5: Nonverbal. You may not have defined your career goals or chosen a major yet. Doing solid , steady work, day by day and week by week, will help you meet those goals. Read Chapter 5 and think about how you could apply these guidelines to the first stages The language and writing style is sophisticated and sometimes dense.

chapter 5 language and meaning helping minds meet

K stays connected to the sense her students are making of their work as it unfolds. At the very beginning of the project, Ms. K and her students started conversations about how their projects would be assessed.

As a class, they cycle back through the criteria that were established, deepening understanding by highlighting exemplars from past projects and just talking through what constitutes quality work. They share examples of visual display boards, written reports, and models from other projects.

K wants to make sure that each student understands the standards that they are expected to meet. Students chose many of the criteria by which they wish their peers to evaluate them, and, with Ms. K's help, they developed an evaluation rubric that will be ready on presentation day—now just 2 weeks away.

At that time, they will be making public reports to peers, parents, and community members. After considerable research into existing curriculum materials and much discussion, the team decided to build a technology piece into some of the current science studies.

The third-grade teacher on the team, Ms. They selected three topics that they knew they would be teaching the following year: That winter, when the end of the sound study neared, Ms. She posed a question to the entire class: Having studied sound for almost 6 weeks, could they design and make musical instruments that would produce sounds for entertainment?

R had collected a variety of materials, which she now displayed on a table, including boxes, tubes, string, wire, hooks, scrap wood, dowels, plastic, rubber, fabric and more. The students had been working in groups of four during the sound study, and Ms. R asked them to gather into those groups to think about the kinds of instruments they would like to make. R asked the students to think particularly about what they knew about sound, what kind of sound Page 28 Share Cite Suggested Citation: How would the sound be produced?

What would make the sound? She suggested they might want to look at the materials she had brought in, but they could think about other materials too. R sent the students to work in their groups. Collaborative work had been the basis of most of the science inquiry the student had done; for this phase, Ms. R felt that the students should work together to discuss and share ideas, but she suggested that each student might want to have an instrument at the end to play and to take home.

As the students began to talk in their groups, Ms. R added elements to the activity. They would have only the following 2 weeks to make their instruments. Furthermore, any materials they needed beyond what was in the boxes had to be materials that were readily available and inexpensive. She moved among groups, listening and adding comments.

When she felt that discussions had gone as far as they could go, she asked each group to draw a picture of the instruments the children thought they would like to make, write a short piece on how they thought they would make them, and make a list of the materials that they would need. R made a list of what was needed, noted which children and which groups might profit from discussing their ideas with one another, and suggested that the children think about their task, collect materials if they could, and come to school in the next week prepared to build their instruments.

Some designs were simple and easy to implement, for example, one group was making a rubber-band player by stretching different widths and lengths of rubber bands around a plastic gallon milk container with the top cut off.

Another group was making drums of various sizes using some thick cardboard tubes and pieces of thin rubber roofing material.

For many, the designs could not be translated into reality, and much change and trial and error ensued. One group planned to build a guitar and designed a special shape for the sound box, but after the glued sides of their original box collapsed twice, the group decided to use the wooden box that someone had added to the supply table. In a few cases, the original design was abandoned, and a new design emerged as the instrument took shape.

At the end of the second week, Ms. R set aside 2 days for the students to reflect on what they had done individually and as a class. On Friday, they were once again to draw and write about their instruments. Where groups had worked together on an instrument, one report was to be prepared.

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On the next Monday, each group was to make a brief presentation of the instrument, what it could do, how the design came to be, and what challenges had been faced. As a final effort, the class could prepare a concert for other third grades. In making the musical instruments, students relied on knowledge and understanding developed while studying sound, as well as the principles of design, to make an instrument that produced sound.

The assessment task for the musical instruments follows. The titles emphasize some important components of the assessment process. Page 29 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The K-4 science content standard on science and technology is supported by the idea that students should be able to communicate the purpose of a design. The K-4 physical science standard is supported by the fundamental understanding of the characteristics of sound, a form of energy.

Students demonstrate the products of their design work to their peers and reflect on what the project taught them about the nature of sound and the process of design.

This can be public, group, or individual, embedded in teaching. This activity assesses student progress toward understanding the purpose and processes of design. The information will be used to plan the next design activity. The activity also permits the teacher to gather data about understanding of sound.

Observations of the student performance. Third-grade students have not completed a design project. Their task is to present the product of their work to their peers and talk about what they learned about sound and design as a result of doing the project. This is a challenging task for third-grade students, and the teacher will have to provide considerable guidance to the groups of students as they plan their presentations.

As described in the science standards, the teacher provided the following directions that served as a framework that students could use to plan their presentations. Play your instrument for the class. Show the class the part of the instrument that makes the sound. Describe to the class the purpose function that the other parts of the instrument have.

Show the class how you can make the sound louder. Show the class how you can change the pitch how high or how low the sound is of the sound. Tell the class about how you made the instrument, including What kind of instrument did you want to make?

How like the instrument you wanted to make is the one you actually made? Why did you change your design? What tools and materials did you use to make your instrument?

Explain why people make musical instruments. Teachers match their actions to the particular needs of the students, deciding when and how to guide—when to demand more rigorous grappling by the students, when to provide information, when to provide particular tools, and when to connect students with other sources.

Page 34 Share Cite Suggested Citation: She plans to do this through inquiry. Of the many organisms she might choose to use, she selects an organism that is familiar to the students, one that they have observed in the schoolyard. As a life-long learner, Ms. She also uses the resources of the school—materials available for science and media in the school library.

She models the habits and values of science by the care provided to the animals. Students write and draw their observations. Developing communication skills in science and in language arts reinforce one another.

Although she had never used earthworms in the science classroom before, and she knew she could use any of a number of small animals to meet her goals, Ms.

chapter 5 language and meaning helping minds meet

She called the local museum of natural history to talk with personnel to be sure she knew enough about earthworms to care for them and to guide the children's explorations. She learned that it was relatively easy to house earthworms over long periods. She was told that if she ordered the earthworms from a biological supply house, they would come with egg cases and baby, earthworms and the children would be able to observe the adult earthworms, the egg cases, the young earthworms, and some of the animal's habits.

Before preparing a habitat for the earthworms, students spent time outdoors closely examining the environment where the worms had been found. This field trip was followed by a discussion about important aspects of keeping earthworms in the classroom: How would students create a place for the earthworms that closely resembled the natural setting? An earthworm from outside was settled into a large terrarium away from direct sun; black paper was secured over the sides of the terrarium into which the children had put soil, leaves, and grass.

A week later the earthworms arrived from the supply company and were added to the habitat. She wanted the students to become familiar with the basic needs of the earthworms and how to care for them. It was important that the children develop a sense of responsibility toward living things as well as enhance their skills of observation and recording.

She also felt that this third grade class would be able to design simple experiments that would help the students learn about some of the behaviors of the earthworms. In the first 2 weeks, the students began closely observing the earthworms and recording their habits. The students recorded what the earthworms looked like, how they moved, and what the students thought Page 35 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The students described color and shape; they weighed and measured the earthworms and kept a large chart of the class data, which provoked a discussion about variation.

They observed and described how the earthworms moved on a surface and in the soil. Questions and ideas about the earthworms came up continually. Among the many questions on the chart were: How do the earthworms have babies? Do they like to live in some kinds of soil better than others? What are those funny things on the top of the soil?

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Do they really like the dark? How do they go through the dirt? How big can an earthworm get? When the class reconvened, each group shared what they were going to explore and how they might investigate the topic. The students engaged in lively discussion as they shared their proposed explorations.

A week later, the investigations were well under way. One group had chosen to investigate the life cycle of earthworms and had found egg cases in the soil. While waiting for baby earthworms to hatch, they had checked books about earthworms out of the library. They had also removed several very young very small earthworms from the terrarium and were trying to decide how they might keep track of the growth. Two groups were investigating what kind of environment the earthworms liked best.

Both were struggling with several variables at once—moisture, light, and temperature. She hoped they might come to this idea on their own. A fourth group was trying to decide what the earthworms liked to eat. The students had been to the library twice and now were ready to test some foods.

The last two groups were working on setting up an old ant farm with transparent sides to house earthworms, because they were interested in observing what the earthworms actually did in the soil and what happened in different kinds of soil. In their study of earthworms, Mrs. They also asked and answered questions and communicated their understandings to one another.

They observed the outdoors and used the library and a classroom well equipped to teach science. Page 36 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Premature intervention deprives students of the opportunity to confront problems and find solutions, but intervention that occurs too late risks student frustration.

Teachers also must decide when to challenge students to make sense of their experiences: At these points, students should be asked to explain, clarify, and critically examine and assess their work. An important stage of inquiry and of student science learning is the oral and written discourse that focuses the attention of students on how they know what they know and how their knowledge connects to larger ideas, other domains, and the world beyond the classroom.

Teachers directly support and guide this discourse in two ways: They require students to record their work—teaching the necessary skills as appropriate—and they promote many different forms of communication for example, spoken, written, pictorial, graphic, mathematical, and electronic.

Using a collaborative group structure, teachers encourage interdependency among group members, assisting students to work together in small groups so that all participate in sharing data and in developing group reports. Teachers also give groups opportunities to make presentations of their work and to engage with their classmates in explaining, clarifying, and justifying what they have learned.

The teacher's role in these small and larger group interactions is to listen, encourage broad participation, and judge how to guide discussion—determining ideas to follow, ideas to question, information to provide, and connections to make.

In the hands of a skilled teacher, such group work leads students to recognize the expertise that different members of the group bring to each endeavor and the greater value of evidence and argument over personality and style. Teachers make it clear that each student must take responsibility for his or her work. The teacher also creates opportunities for students to take responsibility for their own learning, individually and as members of groups.

Teachers do so by supporting student ideas and questions and by encouraging students to pursue them. Teachers give individual students active roles in the design and implementation of investigations, in the preparation and presentation of student work to their peers, and in student assessment of their own work.

In all aspects of science learning as envisioned by the Standards, skilled teachers recognize the diversity in their classes and organize the classroom so that all students have the opportunity to participate fully. Teachers monitor the participation of all students, carefully determining, for instance, if all Page 37 Share Cite Suggested Citation: This monitoring can be particularly important in classes of diverse students, where social issues of status and authority can be a factor.

Teachers of science orchestrate their classes so that all students have equal opportunities to participate in learning activities. Students with physical disabilities might Teachers who are enthusiastic, interested, and who speak of the power and beauty of scientific understanding instill in their students some of those same attitudes. Implementing the recommendations above requires a range of actions based on careful assessments of students, knowledge of science, and a repertoire of science-teaching strategies.

One aspect of the teacher's role is less tangible: A teacher who engages in inquiry with students models the skills needed for inquiry. Teachers who exhibit enthusiasm and interest and who speak to the power and beauty of scientific understanding instill in their students some of those same attitudes toward science.

Teachers whose actions demonstrate respect for differing ideas, attitudes, and values support a disposition fundamental to science and to science classrooms that also is important in many everyday situations. The ability of teachers to do all that is required by Standard B requires a sophisticated set of judgments about science, students, learning, and teaching.

To develop these judgments, successful teachers must have the opportunity to work with colleagues to discuss, share, and increase their knowledge. They are also more likely to succeed if the fundamental beliefs about students and about learning are shared across their school community in all learning domains.