The Colonists - What they created
Compare and Contrast the Northern,Middle,Southern colonies. VN are all a part of the global trade; most children were taught about religion. Northern colonies were founded by pilgrims who wanted religious freedom Their differences in political, social, and economic issues shaped our country into what we are today. In Southern colonies, many people lived on large farms, known as plantations. The Relationship Between Slavery & Cotton. Since the northern colonies attracted religious dissenters, they tended to migrate in families. Such family connections were less prevalent in the South.
By the s, the English divided their territory into three chartered colonies: New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Delaware was an unchartered colony until it became a state in The geography included flat land with rich soil, coastal plains that spread to the Appalachian foothills, and many navigable waters The climate was milder than New England allowing for a longer growing season The abundant natural resources included timber, fur, and rich farmland.
The Middle Colonies' society was Multiculture and very diverse - people from many parts of Europe and Africa lived in the Middle Colonies. The middle colonies were the most diverse and multicultural of the three regions.
The population was culturally, linguistically, and spiritually diverse. People lived in small settlements throughout the colonies which encouraged the growth of small towns run by county governments. Somewhat equal for white men - almost every white, adult male owned land Diverse in religious beliefs and cultural values. People in the Middle Colonies displayed more tolerance than the other two regions. Commercial enterprises with small farmers growing diversified crops and craftsmen and merchants providing many services and resources.
By the s, the Dutch had created a strong commercial economy throughout the Hudson valley and the Swedes had created an independent fur-trading community in the Delaware River Valley. Hard working small farmers, craftsmen, and merchants. Manufacturing which included iron ore products - tools, kettles, nails and plows.
Trade that included exported agricultural products and natural resources and imported European manufactured goods. The geography of the Southern colonies included rivers with deep water estuaries and natural ocean ports. The geographyof the lower southern colonies included broad, coastal plains with rich soil. The climate was the warmest within all three colonial regions, and it allowed for the longest growing season within the three colonial regions - 7 months.
The natural resources included rich farmland and fish. The Southern Colonies' society was Biracial - primarily white and black. Unequal - social, economic, and political inequality. The minority of European colonists consisted of free men and women; the majority consisted of laborers: Hierarchical and socially stratified according to wealth as dictated by English tradition: Composed of five groups: The Southern Colonies' economy was characterized by: Single crop economy - profitable, single crop farms growing tobacco, indigo, rice, hemp, and later on, cotton.
Rural areas with sparse settlements Export of agricultural goods Goal 6: To take an indepth exploration of three colonies - Jamestown in the south, Pennsylvania in the Middle, and Massachusetts in New England - and one of the most unusual of all the colonies - Georgia Jamestown Chronology Original maps of Jamestown http: Any "adventurer" who could pay 12 lbs, 10 shillings could purchase stock.
The Company hopes to increase its profits in this corporate venture. According to the first historian of the Virginia Colony, "The chief Design of all Parties concern'd was to fetch away the Treasure from thence, aiming more at sudden Gain, than to form any regular Colony. In December, men and boys leave England on three boats: Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery.
One person perished on the trip. Upon arrival, the written instructions of the Virginia Company decrees the colonists "were not permitted to manure or till any ground. In June, the first fort is finished, a "triangle-wise having three bulwarks at every corner like a half-moon, and four or five pieces of artillery mounted in them. This is a drawing of James Fort c. The sketch shows a flag-like projection which is more probably an enclosed garden. The three sides and circular bastions at the corners are common to all three descriptions of the early fort.
The two dots are most likely guard outposts. Mid-year, one settler, who is named "JR" by late 20th Century archeologists, dies under mysterious circumstances. Full skeletal remains were found located within the first wooden palisade, indicating this young man died within a few months after arriving in May He had a lead bullet embedded in his lower leg. Painstaking investigation indicates he was shot at fairly close range and died of the injury. We know from the diaries of John Smith and John Percy that a great deal of civil unrest existed from the wretched living conditions, the disappointment that the settler were not going to get rich, hunger, and disease - so it is clear he died at the hands of a fellow settler.
Colonists meet Powhatan, the leader of the united Powhatan Indian confederacy in the area.
By the fall, 67 of the original settlers are dead. Smith begins to train volunteers to fight "amongst the trees" against any native attackers.
Skirmishes between the Powhatans and the colonists began on a regular basis. Kidnappings and prisoner exchanges become more common.
Smith leads the first colonial offensive in Virginia and destroys a series of native towns and canoes along the James River.
In April, supplies and between new colonists arrive from England. In the fall, the first women arrive in Jamestown. By the following year, about English women lived in Jamestown. The men were in Jamestown for over a year before an English woman arrived, two years before a significant number arrived. Although there are no official marriages recorded between the English and native women, a Spanish visitor reported in that as many as " First, the colonists must find something in Virginia of major value gold, passage to the Pacific, or the lost Roanoke Colony ; and second, Captain Newport was to place an English crown on Chief Powhatan's head thus rendering him a loyal prince of King James.
Newport attempts to carry out the coronation, but once Powhatan realizes that the crown means subjugation to the English king, he forbids his people to bargain with the English for food. Thus, the colonists face winter without the necessary grain they needed to survive.
The "Starving Time" begins. Supplies are low, nobody had planted enough corn to last through the winter, and there is not enough to eat. They turn to eating "doggs, Catts Ratts and myce" and some resort to boiling boot leather. Conditions are so desperate that one man "did kill his wife, powdered her, and had eaten part of her" before leaders discover his actions and have him executed.
At the beginning of the year, colonists live in Jamestown; by the year's end, 60 survive. Those who do survive are "so Leane that they looked Lyke Anotamies Cyreing owtt we are starved We are starved In June, the small number of survivors abandon Jamestown, only to meet the new governor, Lord Delaware, who orders them back, provides provisions to reinvigorate the colony, and places all colonists under martial law until the end of the year. Argall offers her freedom in exchange for English prisoners held by Powhatan.
Pocahontas is held first in Jamestown and then in other Virginia settlements where she becomes educated in the Christian faith. Rolfe cross-pollinates Indian tobacco with seeds brought over from England to make a sweeter tobacco that suits the taste of Europeans. He begins sending tobacco to England. Rolfe takes Pocahontas and their young son, Thomas, to England. Seven months later, in March on the voyage home, Pocahontas dies, possibly of pneumonia. The ship returns to England and Pocahontas is buried in a churchyard in Gravesend.
Most have trades - especially in the lumber, glass, and pottery services. Virginia colonists export 18, pounds of tobacco to England. Two officials in Jamestown purchased them in exchange for food and supplies.
In July, the first representative assembly in the "New World" begins. The Virginia Company orders the people of Jamestown "to establish one equal and uniform government over all Virginia" and to provide "just laws for the happy guiding and governing of the people there inhabiting. This first meeting is the beginning of the Virginia General Assembly and a forerunner of the U.
The first recorded laws concerning indentured servitude are passed in Jamestown during the first General Assembly. Indentured servitude in Virginia allows English servants to be bought and sold freely, used as gambling stakes, transferred to another master through a will, and taken by the sheriff for satisfaction of his master's debt. The Virginia Company adopts a new policy for luring colonists to Virginia that allows individuals to own land for the first time since the settlement began.
Colonists who arrived before would receive acres apiece "to be held by them and their heirs and assigns forever. Indentured servants received their allotment after their service was completed. This decision is indicative of a growing recognition that Jamestown must be more than just a commercial settlement and that in order to have a prosperous colony, it must be populated with families, women and children - and not just eager adventurers in constant need of supplies from home.
More than one-third of all the colonists - men, women, and children - are killed in one day. Jamestown is spared because the people had been forewarned by a "friendly" Indian.
Survivors are ordered to move into eight fortified settlements, one of which is Jamestown. Jamestown becomes the royal colony of Virginia.
John Smith publishes A General Historie of Virginia in which he includes this sketch showing Smith taking an Indian chief hostage during a battle. There is no other history that can verify this alleged event. All 23 black residents are servants. The two white servants are punished by an additional four years of service.
The only black servant is forced to serve his master for the rest of his life. The General Assembly becomes largely independent of England. Somewhere between and colonists are killed.
The General Assembly boasted that the natives were "so routed and dispersed that they are no longer a nation, and we now suffer only from robbery by a few starved outlaws. Bacon dies of dysentery soon thereafter and the rebellion ends without its leader.
The aftermath results in the hanging of several dozen survivors and the loss of much of the General Assembly's independence. Its early buildings disappear and the land reverts to agriculture. Bytheir archaeologists found the remains of the first Jamestown Fort. Since that time, the archaeological findings have changed the way we think about Jamestown.
Ina royal charter made William Penn, a Quaker, the proprietor of the only ungranted land left along the North American coast. Founded in by George Fox, the Quakers - called so because Fox urged them to "tremble at the name of the Lord" - had several very controversial beliefs: All people had "divinity within themselves," an "Inner Light" would could guide them along the path of righteousness, and all who obtained such divinity could also attain salvation.
Society should be strictly egalitarian. All men and women were equal, not only in society but in their religious meetings. No person had higher status than any others - therefore, they refused to bow to royalty or show their "social superior" the customary marks of respect like bowing and removing their hats. They were pacifists who refused to make war or swear oaths to a national entity. Thus, bythe 40, English Quakers were suffering from severe persecution in England. The idea caught the attention of William Penn, a convert to Quakerism in Penn's father - a very wealthy man with close connection to the throne of Charles II - almost disowned his son over the conversion.
Upon his father's death, Penn inherited a substantial estate, as well as a claim to a sizable loan his father had made to the Crown. Charles II gave Penn proprietary rights to a huge track of land in America.
Thus, insome settlers - most of whom were religious dissenters like the Quakers, Amish, Baptists, and Mennonites - had arrived in Pennsylvania. Pennyslvania's population tripled within five years and stood at 21, by About half were indentured servants and the remainder were families of free farmers and artisans.
People of diverse nationalities and religions came to the settlement, bringing experienced farmers and established merchants with trading connections. In Penn's First Frame of Government, drafted incolonists were guaranteed religious freedom, civil liberties, and elected representation. All free men were given the vote and the legislature they elected had full governing powers. Anyone who could buy land could own land, and thus a thriving colony of small, independent landowning farmers arose - no clustering towns.
Penn worked hard to ensure that no politically powerful landlords would be in control of economically dependent tenant farmers. Penn's policies helped Philadelphia to become a successful trading seaport which was supported by commercial agriculture. Quakers were pacifists who also believed the Indians rightfully owned the land. Thus, peace prevailed between the Lenni Lenapes - or Delawares in English a tribe of the Algonquin federation - and the settlers. Penn purchased all land from the Indians before colonization was permitted, prohibited the sale of alcohol to the tribe, strictly regulated the fur trade, and learned the Indian language.
In England, persecution of the Separatists had become so intense that in one congregation migrated to Holland. A few members found, however, that their pure churches and communities could not flourish in Holland and be free from corruption, distraction, and cultural competition.
Under the leadership of William Bradford, 35 Separatists left Holland and sailed to England where they negotiated with merchants from the Virginia Company. The Company agreed to advance the necessary funds to go to America if the Separatists who could not pay their passage would become indentured servants. In September87 Separatists and several dozen others who were either willing to pay their own passage or were hired laborers sailed on the Mayflower bound for Virginia - a very large unchartered area.
But they landed instead on the coast of present-day southeastern Massachusetts at what they called Plymouth. The people who now call Pilgrims landed in the winter with insufficient supplies and high expectations of beginning a new life on rich tobacco lands.
- The Southern Colonies
- Political, Social & Economic Differences Between the Northern & Southern Colonies During the 1600s
Many of the passengers immediately wanted to leave. Bya prosperous Puritan named John Winthrop applied for a royal charter through his business, the Massachusetts Bay Company, to establish a model "godly community" of Puritans in northern America - what he called the creation of a model "City upon a Hill". Winthrop set about to recruit devout Puritan families to join him in his religious experiment. Inan advance crew traveled to Massachusetts to prepare shelters and clear fields for planting.
Ina total of 17 ships with 1, colonists - Winthrop included - arrived to create a "Modell of Christian Charity. Winthrop announced that separation between the rich and poor, landowners and workers was divinely decreed and that the only people who could vote were church going men who could testify to an experience of "saving faith" or desiring salvation through God.
Differences among colonial regions
Social life was also rigidly regulated - every colonist was required to attend church and the church and government determined all standards for sexual conduct, personal behavior, business dealings, parent-child relationships, and marital life. The colony began as a trading corporation but bythe company had evolved into a provincial government.
The Bay Colony almost immediately experienced difficulties with the most populous tribe and the one most resistant to English expansion - the Pequots. Inthe Bay Colony declared war on the Pequots and the following year, the Pequots declared war on Connecticut after they were evicted from their ancestral lands.
For the next year, the colonists began a calculated strategy of divide and conquer. Winthrop convinced the Narragansett - traditional enemies of the Pequot - to join forces with the English. The Pequot War did not end until all the men had been killed and the women and children sold into slavery.
Then Connecticut laid claim to all Pequot lands.The Quakers, the Dutch, and the Ladies: Crash Course US History #4
Five years later, the Massachusetts colonists had the chief of their former ally, the Narragansetts, assassinated so they could claim his land. Thus ended Indian resistance to English expansion in New England for several years.
The Wampanoags of Plymouth was the only remaining tribe of any strength. Indian resistance in New England was over, but the price had been high. Almost 20, English and Indians lost their lives in the war.
Differences among colonial regions
Inthe colony began as a trading corporation, but bythe company had evolved into a provincial government. Georgia was the last of the British colonies to be established in North America. InGeneral James Oglethorpe and several of his wealthy English friends became trustees of a new colony. For the next 21 years, they would help Georgia grow and prosper, and then it was to revert to royal control.
From the beginning, Georgia was to be a colony entirely different from the other Southern English colonies. The trustees sought three goals: To populate the new colony with a group of "worthy poor" from across Europe who would be given land, employment, and a new start in a better society.
Their differences in political, social, and economic issues shaped our country into what we are today. However, such differences caused strife and a lack of understanding that eventually led to the Revolutionary War. Political Differences Charter colonies, which gave a company the right to settle in America, mainly lied in the north.
Royal colonies, however, were settled in the name of the King of England and were governed by the House of Burgesses. The Massachusetts Bay Company received a charter and was required by law to hold meetings with appointed stockholders and officers. All freed men were eligible to vote in such arrangements. In Virginia, on the other hand, an appointed colonial governor chose his council.
Colonial governors were less in touch with their citizens since they rarely traveled from England to America. Social Differences In the New England colonies, the Puritans and Quakers built their societies on precepts of the Bible, whereas southern colonies relied on a conventional, class-based society.
New Englanders valued education and promoted literacy to understand the Bible. In societies like those of the Quakers, even women were granted an education.
Young men were expected to earn a trade or work towards a religious or political career. In Southern colonies, many people lived on large farms, known as plantations. There was less emphasis on education since many of the inhabitants were slaves or indentured servants.