Relationship - Wikipedia
Relationship most often refers to: Family relatives and consanguinity · Interpersonal relationship, a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between two or more people; Correlation and dependence, relationships in mathematics and statistics between two variables or sets of. A quasi contract is a legal agreement created by the courts between two This law saw that the plaintiff in a case received a sum of money. Quasi-set theory is a formal mathematical theory for dealing with collections of The first quasi-set theory was proposed by D. Krause in his PhD thesis, in . a primitive relation, but the theory has a weaker concept of indistinguishability, .
Krause in his PhD thesis, in see Krause A related physics theory, based on the logic of adding fundamental indistinguishabilty to equality and inequality, was developed and elaborated independently in the book The Theory of Indistinguishables by A. For an updated paper on the subject, see French and Krause Krause builds on the set theory ZFU, consisting of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory with an ontology extended to include two kinds of urelements: Quasi-sets q-sets are collections resulting from applying axioms, very similar to those for ZFU, to a basic domain composed of m-atoms, M-atoms, and aggregates of these.
Q-set theories based on other set-theoretical frameworks are, of course, possible. The quasi-cardinal of a quasi-set is not defined in the usual sense by means of ordinals because the m-atoms are assumed absolutely indistinguishable. In this copy, all the usual mathematical concepts can be defined, and the 'sets' in reality, the ' Q -sets' turn out to be those q-sets whose transitive closure contains no m-atoms.
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Within the theory, the idea that there is more than one entity in x is expressed by an axiom which states that the quasi-cardinal of the power quasi-set of x has quasi-cardinal 2qc xwhere qc x is the quasi-cardinal of x which is a cardinal obtained in the 'copy' of ZFU just mentioned.
What exactly does this mean? Consider the level 2p of a sodium atom, in which there are six indiscernible electrons. Today, the study of intimate relationships uses participants from diverse groups and examines a wide variety of topics that include family relations, friendshipsand romantic relationships, usually over a long period. Research being conducted by John Gottman and his colleagues involves inviting married couples into a pleasant setting, in which they revisit the disagreement that caused their last argument.
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Although the participants are aware that they are being videotaped, they soon become so absorbed in their own interaction that they forget they are being recorded. They monitor newlywed couples using self-reports over a long period a longitudinal study. Participants are required to provide extensive reports about the natures and the statusses of their relationships.
In a recent study on the impact of Hurricane Katrina on marital and partner relationships, researchers found that while many reported negative changes in their relationships, a number also experienced positive changes. More specifically, the advent of Hurricane Katrina led to a number of environmental stressors for example, unemployment, prolonged separation that negatively impacted intimate relationships for many couples, though other couples' relationships grew stronger as a result of new employment opportunities, a greater sense of perspective, and higher levels of communication and support.What is MEDIATED QUASI-INTERACTION? What does MEDIATED QUASI-INTERACTION mean?
One team of researcher from Northwestern University who summarised the literature infound that 'negative-affect reciprocity', which is retaliatory negativity between partners during a conflict, is arguably the most robust predictor of poor marital quality. However, this degradation can be softened, according to their heterosexual couple strong Chicago sample, by undertaking a reappraisal writing task every 4 months. The study reports three distinct findings showing how unhealthy habits are promoted in long-term, intimate relationships: Aristotle[ edit ] Over 2, years ago, interpersonal relationships were being contemplated by Aristotle.
Aristotle believed that by nature humans are social beings. People are attracted to relationships that provide utility because of the assistance and sense of belonging that they provide. In relationships based on pleasure, people are attracted to the feelings of pleasantness when the parties engage. However, relationships based on utility and pleasure were said to be short-lived if the benefits provided by one of the partners was not reciprocated.
Relationships based on virtue are built on an attraction to the others' virtuous character. Acquaintance and acquaintanceship — Becoming acquainted depends on previous relationships, physical proximityfirst impressions, and a variety of other factors. If two people begin to like each other, continued interactions may lead to the next stage, but acquaintance can continue indefinitely.
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Another example is association. Buildup — During this stage, people begin to trust and care about each other. The need for intimacy, compatibility and such filtering agents as common background and goals will influence whether or not interaction continues. Continuation — This stage follows a mutual commitment to quite a strong and close long-term friendship, romantic relationship, or even marriage.
It is generally a long, relatively stable period. Nevertheless, continued growth and development will occur during this time. Mutual trust is important for sustaining the relationship. Deterioration — Not all relationships deteriorate, but those that do tend to show signs of trouble. Boredom, resentment, and dissatisfaction may occur, and individuals may communicate less and avoid self-disclosure.
Loss of trust and betrayals may take place as the downward spiral continues, eventually ending the relationship. Alternately, the participants may find some way to resolve the problems and reestablish trust and belief in others.
Ending — The final stage marks the end of the relationship, either by breakups, death, or by spatial separation for quite some time and severing all existing ties of either friendship or romantic love.
Terminating a relationship[ edit ] According to the latest Systematic Review of the Economic Literature on the Factors associated with Life Satisfaction dating fromstable and secure relationships are beneficial, and correspondingly, relationship dissolution is harmful. Breaking up can actually be a positive experience when the relationship did not expand the self and when the breakup leads to personal growth. They also recommend some ways to cope with the experience: Purposefully focussing on the positive aspects of the breakup "factors leading up to the break-up, the actual break-up, and the time right after the break-up" Minimising the negative emotions Journaling the positive aspects of the breakup e.
This exercise works best, although not exclusively, when the breakup is mutual. Furthermore, rebound relationships don't last any shorter than regular relationships. One reason cited for divorce is infidelity. The determinants of unfaithfulness are debated by dating service providers, feminists, academics and science communicators.
Conversely, costs are the negative or unpleasant aspects of the partner or their relationship. Comparison level includes what each partner expects of the relationship. The comparison level is influenced by past relationships, and general relationship expectations they are taught by family and friends.
Individuals in long-distance relationshipsLDRs, rated their relationships as more satisfying than individuals in proximal relationship, PRs.
LDR couples reported the same level of relationship satisfaction as couples in PRs, despite only seeing each other on average once every 23 days. Therefore, the costs and benefits of the relationship are subjective to the individual, and people in LDRs tend to report lower costs and higher rewards in their relationship compared to PRs.
Background[ edit ] While traditional psychologists specializing in close relationships have focused on relationship dysfunction, positive psychology argues that relationship health is not merely the absence of relationship dysfunction. Additionally, healthy relationships can be made to "flourish. A social skills approach posits that individuals differ in their degree of communication skill, which has implications for their relationships. Relationships in which partners possess and enact relevant communication skills are more satisfying and stable than relationships in which partners lack appropriate communication skills.
Adult attachment models represent an internal set of expectations and preferences regarding relationship intimacy that guide behavior.