Good Work Relationships Between Boss & Subordinates that employee productivity is directly linked to the relationship employees have with their superiors, so foster this relationship by looking beyond what's on paper. Implications of these different views of superior-subordinate relationships for future . KERR, S., & JERMIER, J. Substitutes for leadership: Their meaning and . To operationalize the definition of trust in a way that that is directed specifically When a superior feels that a subordinate employee can be trusted to take on more for the purpose of this paper it will be operationally defined as: an employee.
Two other forms of downward communication are when a customer gives orders to a supplier and when shareholders instruct management to do certain things. This type of communication involves transmitting new information that will keep subordinates on the same page and mindset of their superiors, as well as the organization.
This helps provide a direction for subordinates to take to help achieve organizational goals and targets. Job instructions and rationale: The first purpose is to provide subordinates with what the organization would like to achieve or reach, while this second purpose is to help give subordinates a successful way to accomplish the tasks. Coordinating both the individual goals and department goals, helps individuals understand their company's aspirations.
This type of communication includes the most basic conception of downward communication.
Good Work Relationships Between Boss & Subordinates
Superiors communicate the company's prewritten policies, procedures, restrictions, and compensation packages. The overall purpose is to create a sense of expectations and requirements in the subordinate's mind.
The last purpose of downward communication is to communicate a sense of belonging to subordinates to promote them to become a part of the organization's culture. This may include motivating subordinates to attend special events that are sponsored by the organization. Better coordination Improved individual performance through the development of intelligent participation Improved morale Improved consumer relations Improved industrial relations.
Upward Communication[ edit ] Upward communication is the process of transmitting information from the bottom levels of an organization to the top levels. It includes judgments, estimations, propositions, complaints, grievance, appeals, reports, etc.
It is very important because it serves as the response on the success of downward communication.
Superior-subordinate communication - Wikipedia
Management comes to know how well its policies, plans, strategies and objectives are adopted by those working at lower levels of the organization. When a manager is open to upward communication, they help foster cooperation, gain support, and reduce frustration. The channel of communication is a very significant variable in the upward communication process.
Channel refers to the means of which messages are transported. It can be face-to-face, over the telephone, written, etc. Communication channel affects subordinate's overall satisfaction with upward communication. In order to optimize the efficiency of the delegation of duties, it is important for supervisors to gain the trust of their employees. Showing competence is one of the first and most important things that a supervisor can do to begin establishing trust with subordinates.
Elangovan and Xie reported that perception of supervisors has an impact on many employee outcomes related to production. They went on to explain that perception of a supervisor has a positive correlation with motivation and a negative correlation with stress in employees Elangovan and Xie, The hiring process is the first sign of trust and acceptance of an employee by a manager, and it is generally expected that trust will be reciprocated by the employee.
Employees are allowed to take on responsibilities that are important to the company, and acquire roles within the social framework of the organization, but they are expected to always act with the best interests of the company in mind. As trust in an employee increases, supervisors tend to respond by providing the employee with job enlargement, the intentional increase in the duties and responsibilities of the employee.
To ensure that employees recognize job enlargement as a sign of trust, the assigned work must be given with a corresponding increase in responsibility.
When employees are given more work duties without increased responsibility, it may indicate to the employees that they did not do enough work or that they are being punished. In assessing the necessary factors for trust in the workplace, it is apparent that trust accumulates over time through events that allow the respective parties to evaluate and reevaluate each other based on their actions.
In the organizational hierarchy, the only way to gain power is through empowerment bestowed by a supervisor. Hierarchical structuring of a company keeps power situated within individuals who maintain higher ranking. Once LMX has begun to be established, the supervisor will delegate more responsibility to the employee, which is associated with an increase in employee empowerment. If employees are motivated to increase company productivity or make systems more efficient, empowerment will serve as a license to innovate.
This was thought to impede motivation and make communications more difficult Therefore, a pleasant interaction with a superior holds extra significance if other employees did not receive the same level of interaction. It is important to note however, that LMX must first be established by creating a relationship with a give and take nature. The exchange element in LMX is fundamental because it allows for the conceptualization of mutual trust and respect, which encourages information exchange.
In this respect trust and LMX are intertwined, acting as both source and product of the other. Reward Systems RS are groups of standardized responses that are designed to give benefits to employees who perform tasks specified by their company or superior Businessdictionary.
A RS is another form of supervisor-employee interaction in the sense that a reward is typically created by a manager to give to subordinates, and subordinates respond to those rewards verbally or behaviorally. In fact, all of the constructs previously discussed are heavily connected to RS by either being rewards themselves POS, LMXor acting as a part of the measurement of the construct trust in supervisor TS. POS and LMX are methods of positive reinforcement because they are increased as an employee fulfills their psychological and occupational contracts.
When employees determine their level of TS, reward distribution is considered because employees must feel that they are rewarded properly for their contributions in order to know that their supervisors have their best interest in mind. Research shows that most RS methodology has a positive correlation with job productivity in employees Elangovan and Xie, The primary forms of rewards are psychological eg: In order to increase company productivity, it is common for managers to implement a system in which employees receive more rewards for a corresponding increase in job productivity; however, this system is only effective under certain circumstances, usually dictated by the psychological state of the employee.
Elangovan and Xie found that RS had a positive correlation with motivation, but self-esteem served as a moderator. This data demonstrates that familiarity with subordinates, particularly with regard to the self-esteem construct, is imperative for implementing effective RS. The bare essentials for implementing an RS involve: Setting up these features within a company can be a costly enterprise, and if the reward system does not cause a significant increase in employee production, the system will simply serve as a loss to the company.
For this reason, LMX, and employee testing procedures are invaluable in allowing superiors to gain critical information about their subordinates, so that the RS can be designed with high confidence of leading to increased revenue for the company. In addition to the direct effects of RS on employees, Elangovan and Xie demonstrates how employees also benefit from feeling empowered through receiving rewards.
They posit that rewards are part of the five bases of social power i. Trust is mutually established through significant interactions, and acts as the foundation for building POS and LMX in the employee-supervisor relationship, and that relationship is rated more positively when employees feel that they have more positive interactions with supervisors than negative interactions. Although studies have shown a positive correlation between RS and job performance, psychological states of employees, particularly with regard to self-esteem moderate the relationship.
Furthermore, this positive rating may be independent of actual employee performance levels. Future studies would benefit from a cross-lagged panel design that could use time as a quasi-experimental variable in order to derive statements that imply cause and effect between the variables LMX, and employee job performance.
Additionally, the prevalence of research that indicate associations between the constructs studied in this paper ie: In the case of a mediating relationship, the ability of empowerment to predict job performance should exist at some level independently of the other constructs.
For data analysis, a hierarchical multiple regression with the other constructs POS, TS, LMX, RS put into the equation before empowerment could be used in order to test the effect of empowerment on job performance after the other constructs have been accounted for.
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