overview of developments in conflict prevention with a gender perspective. 1. WHAT IS .. conflict resolution, management and peacebuilding is also gaining. Under the umbrella of Conflict Resolution, we find negotiation, mediation and relationships that extend beyond the particular site of conflict. . when faced with a stalemate and the only way to overcome it is to settle for a. transforming adversarial relationships for coexistence. . Part III looks at different forms of conflict settlement and resolution, ranging from adju- dication .. Preventive management of conflict does not need to wait until popular discontent and.
They tend to arise over non-negotiable issues such as fundamental human needsintolerable moral differencesor high-stakes distributional issues regarding essential resources, such as money, water, or land. To end or resolve a long-term conflict, a relatively stable solution that identifies and deals with the underlying sources of the conflict must be found. This is a more difficult task than simple dispute settlement, because resolution means going beyond negotiating interests to meet all sides' basic needs, while simultaneously finding a way to respect their underlying values and identities.
However, some of the same intervention processes used in dispute settlement i. True conflict resolution often requires a more analytical, problem-solving approach than dispute settlement.
The main difference is that resolution requires identifying the causal factors behind the conflict, and finding ways to deal with them. On the other hand, settlement is simply aimed at ending a dispute as quickly and amicably as possible. This means that it is possible to settle a dispute that exists within the context of a larger conflict, without resolving the overall conflict.
This occurs when a dispute is settled, but the underlying causes of the conflict are not addressed. An example is every time a decision is made by a state regarding the legality of abortion or gay marriage. Laws are passed, court cases are decided, and states make, implement, and change laws that affect these issues all the time.
Distance Learning Course, Unit 1: Conflict management, settlement, resolution and transformation
Such is the case particularly in the area of conflict resolution. Conflict Transformation Across Cultures, p. Often, the underlying causes of conflict are embedded in the institutional structure of society. Achieving complete resolution of a conflict can require making significant socioeconomic or political changes that restructure society in a more just or inclusive way. Changing societal structures, such as the distribution of wealth in society, is a difficult thing to do and can take decades to accomplish.
As a result there are other conceptions of ways to deal with, but not necessarily "resolve," conflicts. Conflict Management Conflict management involves the control, but not resolution, of a long-term or deep-rooted conflict. This is the approach taken when complete resolution seems to be impossible, yet something needs to be done. In cases of resolution-resistant or even intractable conflictit is possible to manage the situation in ways that make it more constructive and less destructive.
For example, sending peacekeeping forces into a region enmeshed in strife may help calm the situation and limit casualties. However, peacekeeping missions will not resolve the conflict. PCP --and their dialogue participants -- decided that talking respectfully about their value differences was a better way of approaching this conflict that shooting people.
Settlement, Resolution, Management, and Transformation: An Explanation of Terms
So the PCP dialogues are an example of conflict management, but not conflict resolution. A Critique and Alternative: Conflict Transformation Additional insights into settlement, resolution, management and transformation are offered by Beyond Intractability project participants. A number of conflict theorists and practitioners, including John Paul Lederach, advocate the pursuit of conflict transformation, as opposed to "conflict resolution" or "conflict management.
It also assumes that conflict is a short-term phenomenon that can be "resolved" permanently through mediation or other intervention processes. The problem with the notion of "management," however, is that it suggests that people can be directed or controlled as if they were physical objects.
In addition, "management" suggests that the goal is the reduction or control of volatility, rather than dealing with the real source of the problem. Once conflict occurs, it changes or transforms those events, people, and relationships that created the initial conflict. Thus, the cause-and-effect relationship goes both ways -- from the people and the relationships to the conflict and back to the people and relationships. In this sense, "conflict transformation" is a term that describes the natural process of conflict.
Conflict management approaches tend to focus more on mitigating or controlling the destructive consequences that emanate from a given conflict than on finding solutions to the underlying issues causing it.
Typical conflict management strategies are the use of military force for deterrence or peace-keeping: Conflict settlement refers to an approach emphasising the reaching of agreement between the parties through negotiation and bargaining. A settlement, in this definition, means an agreement about the conflict issues that often involves a compromise or some concessions from both sides.
Using this approach, neither side may achieve all of their goals, but the disappointment may be offset by the mutuality of the compromise. A settlement is often the quickest solution to a difficult or violent situation. Critics charge, however, that its efficacy is temporary because the underlying relationships and structures that have caused the conflict remain unaddressed.
In practice, conflicts that have reached settlements are often re-opened later. The Versailles peace treaty that ended World War I is one example of a settlement which failed to resolve the causes of the conflict. It did bring an end to the open hostilities of the war, but in imposing harsh conditions on a defeated Germany, it laid the seeds of future conflict.
Conflict resolution is a more comprehensive approach based on mutual problem-sharing between the conflict parties. Resolution of a conflict implies that the deep-rooted sources of conflict are addressed, changing behaviour so it is no longer violent, attitudes so they are no longer hostile, and structures so they are no longer exploitative.
The term is used to refer both to the process or the intention to bring about these changes, and to the completion of the process, so it is difficult to avoid ambiguity about its precise meaning.