Anglo-Papal relations and Henry VIII's break with Rome | The National Archives blog
King Henry VIII () ruled England for 36 years, presiding over of his powerful adviser Cardinal Wolsey, Henry petitioned Pope Clement VII but was. This diminished power was evident during the reign of Pope Clement VII, who England's King Henry VIII had reigned since at the age of eighteen. The future King Henry VIII just turned 18 on June 28, He never mentioned any Dispensation from the Pope to marry Catherine of Aragon either!! Henry.
Spain was one of the first European countries to sponsor an explorer, namely, the Italian sailor, Christopher Columbus. InCabot sailed west from Bristol, in England, on the ship Matthew and discovered "New-found-land. The wedding took place on November 11, However, in April ofArthur died, leaving his bride, Catherine, a childless, widow in a foreign land. InHenry Tudor's wife, Elizabeth of York died. Henry loved her very much and it is claimed that in a deck of playing cards, the Queen of Hearts, is a likeness of Elizabeth of York, his wife.
Although Catherine was from Spain, she was loved by the English people, and the marriage started out as a happy relationship. Henry fought against both the Scots and the French. InCatherine gave birth to a daughter, princess Mary. Mary was the only child who survived from the royal marriage. As you read in the previous chapter, inMartin Luther published his 95 Theses against what he thought were abuses of the Roman Catholic Church.
This is important to know because the Protestant movement in Europe was taking place during the reign of Henry VIII, and would impact his decisions as king of England.
After many years of marriage, and with his queen, Catherine, now in her forties, Henry still lacked the male heir he needed to continue the Tudor Dynasty.
England was not warm to the idea of a female ruler, like princess Mary, since she would most likely marry a foreign prince, who would then control the affairs of England. This problem became the "King's Great Matter. The pope, an ally with Catholic Spain, did not permit the divorce. Henry had become interested in Anne Boleyn, one of the queen's servants. There were many consequences of this decision, Henry lost an ally in Spain and angered the pope in Rome, Catherine was heartbroken, and Mary, his daughter, never forgave him for divorcing her mother.
In ,the pope responded by excommunicating Henry. InAnne gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth. InAnne was beheaded, and Henry married Jane. InJane gave birth to a son, named Edward, two weeks later, she died. From throughHenry ordered that lands be taken away from the Catholic Church, and given to his supporters. This land grab was called the" Dissolution of the Monasteries. Thomas More was a famous Catholic who was executed rather than give up his beliefs.
Henry persecuted Protestants as well.
Henry wrote an article in against Lutheranism, the practices of those who followed Martin Luther. INone of Henry's advisors recommended a new wife to Henry.
Although Henry did not approve of the Protestant movement, he needed allies against Catholic countries, like Spain, so this was a good political marriage. Angelo in Rome, from which he could hear the screams of his flock as men, women and children were butchered.
- ELIZABETHAN CHURCH
- Henry VIII of England
After six months he bought off some Imperial officers and escaped disguised as a peddler. He returned to a depopulated and devastated Rome within a year, in October Henry VIII a different power.
The Church in the Reign of King Henry VIII
Loyal to Catholicism he suppressed Protestantism with his standard brutality — while making his court a center of Renaissance erudition. By the time he had turned forty-two he had come into conflict with Pope Clement regarding marriage. His queen, Catherine of Aragon, had not given him a son who had survived, and Henry, who was accustomed to having mistresses was smitten by Catherine's unusually intelligent and fascinating lady-in-waiting, Anne Boleyn.
Henry wanted his twenty-four years of marriage to Catherine annulled. Pope Clement refused to annul the marriage, and Henry responded by assuming supremacy in his realm over religious matters.
Henry I believed he was competent enough in theology to head the Church of England and he made himself the "Supreme Head in Earth of the Church of England. Henry stayed with Catholic doctrine and ceremony. Inthe Parliament of England accommodated him with the Treasons Act, which made it high treason, punishable by death, to refuse to acknowledge the King as head of the Church of England.
Clement died in September and was succeeded by Paul III, and Paul used his power of excommunication against Henry, followed by his rescinding Henry's title as "Defender of the Faith. Pope Paul had to watch — powerless — as Henry "nationalized" all Roman Church property in England into his personal ownership and sold off these properties to the highest bidders among the aristocracy and the gentry.
Roman priests in England were dismissed unless they swore an oath of conformity to Henry's new Church. Those who would not were dispossessed of their positions and livelihood, or if they made too much political noise they executed as "recusants" — dissidents.
The brilliant Anne Boleyn, from a commoner family and ambitious, in becoming Henry's queen, had stepped into trouble.