How to use monolithic pouring
Concrete is a building material made from crushed stone, sand, water and cement. When preparing concrete, the ingredients are mixed thoroughly and poured into containers, in which the concrete solution then hardens. For the construction of a warm house, special fillers are added to the mixture to improve the quality of the concrete. The composition of concrete for building houses has many advantages. One of them is the ability to prepare the mortar and erect the structure with your own hands.
When working with a concrete house, the following advantages are distinguished:
- installation speed;
- high strength of the structure;
- relatively low financial cost;
- in the house of a monolithic structure there are no gaps through which the cold passes;
- soundproofing of the room;
- the ability to use concrete on concrete;
- the ability to build buildings with your own hands;
- concrete contains various geometric shapes, which simplifies the installation process.
- with uniform pouring of the solution, the formation of cracks is reduced;
- the use of mixtures of light in the composition does not require deepening of the foundation.
Do-it-yourself concrete houses have the following disadvantages:
- the need for additional equipment for working at height;
- due to the metal reinforcement of the walls, the house must be earthed.
- when using solid formwork, the room must be ventilated so that the house breathes.
- high labor costs are required to weld the frame, which is also required if possible.
- a warm house can only be after proper insulation.
- if the construction provides for permanent formwork, then polystyrene is used, which when burned gives off toxic substances that are harmful to human health.
Tools and materials for work
When erecting buildings and structures made of concrete, the following tools and equipment cannot be dispensed with:
- a mixer for connecting concrete components;
- do-it-yourself containers for mixing concrete mixes;
- solution transfer car;
- build a hair dryer;
- hammer drill;
- knife for cutting styrofoam;
- various tools;
- roulette wheel;
- a hammer;
- concrete mixer;
The construction of houses from concrete is carried out in two ways: with removable and fixed formwork. The removable method implies an individual layout of the formwork, the purpose of which is the exact repetition of the contours of the future structure. Removable formwork is made of plastic, metal or wood. This method performs the pouring of a concrete solution with minimal heat transfer, which allows you to save thermal energy in the room. The solid method makes the walls thin, but at the same time retains all structural properties. Such formwork has a heat-insulating layer and built-in fittings.
With fixed formwork
Fixed formwork for the foundation.
The fixed formwork method has the following types of construction: angular, longitudinal, window sill, window sill. This method of building walls has an internal layer of thermal insulation that can save you heating bills. Simplifies the installation of the structure due to its ease and creates a different configuration of the premises.
Thermal insulation of the material is especially important for buildings and structures, since for their absence it is necessary to build walls of great thickness. Of the shortcomings, the formation of hazards as a result of the release of toxins into the atmosphere, which occurs during the fire of buildings, is observed.
The formwork is laid on the waterproofing layer and fixed in the grooves. This technology creates a strong pour with concrete mortar, which prevents the mixture from mixing at the joints. When pouring the formwork, it is forbidden to use heated solutions, since they can form condensate in large quantities, which increases the humidity in the room. When using solid formwork, a house with a good thermal insulation layer is provided, in which only polystyrene foam sheets need to be covered with facing material.
Select methods of insulation using removable formwork. One option is to insulate the gap with warm plaster, the second method is a well facade. The facade of the fountain is a monolithic wall cladding with a brick, and the gap between them is closed with a heater. The fountain facade is the best solution for insulation, which gives the walls breathable properties. The house is resistant to overheating in the summer and stays cool indoors, and in the cold season it stays warm and resists freezing.
The technological process consists in filling the formwork in several steps. Start laying the mortar no more than 50 centimeters of concrete. Let the mixture dry, the next layer is applied after the previous layer has finally solidified. After pouring the solution, it is rammed with a deep vibrator. Next, after the solution has completely hardened, the mold is moved upwards.
The concrete mix is laid until the desired wall height is reached. In order for the structure to be solid, a reinforcing mesh is built into the walls. Wall decoration and installation of thermal insulation material is carried out after a month and a half after laying the concrete mortar, waiting for the final strength of the structure. Thermal insulation material can be:
- mineral wool;
- warm plaster of paris;
- extruded polystyrene.
The removable form is made of wood, metal or plastic. When using a sheet of plywood, it is cut with a file with small teeth and drilled on both sides. This method prevents the destruction of the coating. If plywood is stored at the bottom of the formwork, it will protect against the ingress of moisture to the surface. In order to be able to disassemble the formwork without any problems, the plywood is coated with a special mixture and the fasteners are attached to it.
Concrete is a unique building material, thanks to which various architectural solutions are implemented in reality. The popularity of concrete is due to a large number of positive properties. There are buildings and structures that give strength, reliability and durability. Therefore, concrete is widely used in the construction of houses and load-bearing structures.
An important benefit of durable building material is the ability to be handcrafted for preparation and use in the building process.
Wooden or brick houses rightly have an army of fans. But with all the advantages, they have one very significant minus - their construction is not fast. Those who are considering building their own house, but at the same time do not have enough time in stock and do not have great knowledge of construction, can only choose a monolithic method of housing construction. The article focuses on houses made from solid formwork.
To fill the foundation and walls of such a house, formwork is used. It can be removable (that is, disassembled after the work is completed) or non-removable. The second option remains after the mortar is poured and hardened, and all external finishing work is carried out directly on the formwork.
House with fixed formwork technology
- Formwork is nothing but a shape. You can remember your children's games in the sandpit or imagine a housewife pouring batter into special baking containers for shortcakes. Just contrary to the examples above, the shape stays in place and becomes part of the walls or foundation.
Houses from solid formwork photo
- Fixed formwork is assembled from blocks of different compositions according to the principle of a children's designer. The principle of installation is similar to masonry. Structural elements have grooves or special castle-type joints.
- If necessary, fix the opposite blocks with screed. Make sure you use vertical reinforcement. In order to withstand the pressure that the solution exerts on them from the inside, the pouring is carried out in series. In each of the approaches, cement is filled to a height corresponding to three or four rows of blocks.
- Formwork elements are made of polystyrene foam or other materials that contribute to thermal insulation.
The advantages of using solid formwork
- Monolithic structures are inherently strong. Abandoned formwork creates an additional frame that will strengthen the walls of the future house.
- Monolithic walls less pressure on the baseWhen developing projects of houses from solid formwork, you can calculate the option with an increase in the number of floors of the house.
- Sound and thermal insulation of the house. Expanded polystyrene is an excellent material for heating residential buildings, and its properties are complemented by the fact that it perfectly attenuates noise. Building solid formwork is a kind of simultaneous work on insulation and soundproofing.
- Less time - less work. You should save money building your own home wisely. The rental of expensive construction machinery is removed from the appraisal of the monolithic house. Yes, and there aren't many volunteers or staff. The casting process is quick. This means employees don't have to overpay for the extra time they spend in the facility.
- Space saving. Even in private homes designed for personal projects, there is never much free space. Monolithic walls are thinner than brick walls, but they protect their owners from the cold no worse and save a lot of space inside.
- If I continue the conversation about saving, I have to say this solid formwork makes it possible not to overpay for heating during the further operation of the house.
- Longevity. If you stick to technology down to the smallest detail, the styrofoam and concrete walls will last at least a century.
- Easy to finish. The blocks create a good level surface on the walls so that they can be finished both from the street and in the house without the hassle and additional cost of leveling the plinths.
What is fixed formwork?
Polystyrene blocksfor assembling non-separable formwork
- These are hollow elements with walls of different thicknesses. The outside of the material is much larger than the inside - it is responsible for maintaining heat in the house. The blocks themselves are strong enough to hold the grout being poured, not hygroscopic and affordable.
- Installation in the form of masonry increases the strength of the structure, and reinforcement gives the wall additional rigidity. The vertically arranged reinforcing bars overlap. It is important to correctly choose the diameter, as well as the brand of concrete.
- Communications, including wiring, are routed through holes previously cut in the blocks. All work must be completed before filling. The exit is a kind of sandwich in which the "filling" of reinforced concrete is enclosed between the insulation layers.
- Opponents of expanded polystyrene emphasize that this material is not environmentally friendly. But it's more about choosing a manufacturer. Foamed polystyrene manufactured in accordance with all standards and regulations does not pose a health risk. Suffice it to say, the picky European commissions and audits have allowed this synthetic material to be used in conjunction with food. Therefore, when buying material, it is worth getting acquainted with quality certificates and not getting a dubious financial gain.
- But with the vapor permeability in polystyrene foam, things are really bad. But there won't be a problem if you think through the ventilation system well.
Polystyrene concreteis a "breathing" material
- It is vapor permeable because it is based on cement. The blocks need to be laid on special glue, tied with reinforcement, and then filled. They are superior to the polystyrene foam shuttering in terms of their strength.
- Cement-based blocks are also very diverse. Since there are masonry blocks for load-bearing walls, available in various sizes and modifications, elements for the formwork of columns, vertical or load-bearing floor beams, lintels or strapping can be purchased separately.
Chip cement blocks
- This is an invention of Dutch developers. They have been known since the 30s of the 20th century. Large coniferous wood chips are used for their manufacture (they make up about 80-90% of the total material composition). The chips are treated with special additives and fixed with a mixture of plaster of paris, cement clinker and some other additives (Portland cement).
- In addition to environmental friendliness, the advantages are obvious:
- high strength against the background of low weight;
- vapor permeability;
- heat and sound insulation properties;
- weather resistance;
- frost resistance.
- Fire protection is achieved through special processing, and such blocks are also not afraid of rot, mold and pests. They are easy to cut and work with. When constructing the formwork, the panels are placed opposite each other and fastened with cable ties. They not only connect structural elements, but also do not allow the wall to deviate from the vertical. Standard material sizes: 2000 × 500 × 35 mm.
- They found another application: wood chip cement panels are often used to insulate facades or to build small panel houses in the country that are designed for summer living.
- Reinforce the structure will have less. For the reinforcement, lintels of windows and doors as well as pillars are required. And the walls themselves are reinforced with a clear gap of 2.5 or 3 meters (in the case of formwork made of polystyrene foam blocks, the distance is 1 meter). Pour the mixture in one approach around the perimeter to a height of one meter (two rows). Seal the poured concrete using a bayonet method.
- Since the first version of the material for fixed formwork is much more common, as an example, it is worth considering the technology of construction from polystyrene foam blocks.
Do-it-yourself construction of houses from solid formwork
So there is a foundation that is best for a given soil. Most of the time it is a band base. In any case, it is first covered with a layer of waterproof material and rebars are driven in.
First row masonry
- The blocks are carefully lined up on the reinforcement and fastened together according to the manufacturer's recommendations (cable ties). Start with corner elements. Between them it is useful to pull on the string to check this when the remaining blocks are laid out one behind the other. There are ridges and grooves on the ends of the material. This type of connection holds all parts of the formwork in place. The first layer is the foundation of the future building. At this stage, the laying of branches of the internal partitions, the openings of the entrance groups appear. All technical communication is made right there. The design feature of the blocks (internal cavities) allows you to hide all the necessary cables in the walls. We can't forget about ventilation.
Second row masonry
- The second row of blocks is stacked like bricks with an offset. This bandage provides strength and stiffness. It is important to make sure that the sides of the stacked blocks match. Be sure to check the level so as not to move the wall away from the vertical. Fixing the blocks of the first and second row is easy. The grooves on the surface of the elements are closed by applying light pressure.
- Laying the third row of polystyrene foam blocks is carried out in a similar way to installing the second level.
- With the erected formwork, concrete is poured along the perimeter of the construction site. It is important to seal the filled mixture well. A shallow depth of filling with the mortar allows you to use a piece of reinforcement for these purposes: they act like a bayonet - they pierce the concrete intensively to eliminate voids and destroy air bubbles. The optimal length is calculated as follows: the height of the block must be multiplied by 3. However, getting the job done quickly is made easier by purchasing (or leasing) a depth vibrator. It will do the job of condensing the solution much more effectively. To do this, the diameter of its working part should not exceed 4 cm.
- Experts do not recommend cementing the top layer of block to the end. If you fill in half of the outermost row, then the seam will be hidden in the formwork elements made of expanded polystyrene. This means that the wall is getting stronger. 0.075 to 0.125 m³ of solution must be filled in for one m².
Masonry of the fourth and subsequent row
- The laying of blocks in subsequent lines has the same algorithm as described. After the sixth row has taken its place, the concrete pouring process is repeated. The formwork of the ceilings is best done with the help of specialists. The technology is as follows. A recess of the required dimensions is made in the row of blocks in which the floor beams (or floor logs) are to be laid. The cut-out fragment should not exceed ¼ of the formwork element. Now the beams are installed in their places and the filling is done.
- Finishing a house with solid formwork is quite simple. Due to the high adhesion of the blocks to the plaster mixture, it lies smooth and light. The roof in monolithic houses is no different from the erection of a roof in buildings built using different technology.
Fixed Formwork House Video
What can you do yourself solid formwork for the foundation?
If the home master has the strength to act precisely, accurately, and consistently, then he can create a solid form for the foundation himself. You need to choose from several options for the appropriate material:
- moisture-proof plywood,
- cement chipboard,
- flat slate.
All of them are very durable, moisture-proof, elastic. The only indicator that these materials do not have is thermal insulation. Therefore, you also need to buy something to provide heat (e.g. mineral wool). You will also need waterproof material, fittings, components for the cement-sand mixture, a set of coupling screws and nuts to fasten the structural elements together.
The cost of building a house from solid formwork
- The cost of a monolithic house with solid formwork is much lower than that of a residential house made of brick or wood.
- The price of materials varies depending on the region and manufacturer, but on average, 800-1000 rubles must be paid per square meter of formwork made of styrofoam blocks.
- All manufacturers and sellers calculate the total cost of the formwork for free, and calculators are available on official websites for accurate calculations.
Monolithic houses built with your own hands have recently been very popular in construction. This is because science does not stand still and something new appears in the world every day. This monolithic construction attracts a lot of attention. Most often people order such projects from specialists. But a monolithic house can be built with your own hands.
A monolithic house has high strength, requires minimal cost and construction time, and perfectly retains heat.
What are the pros and cons of a monolithic construction?
This construction technology has become very well known and in great demand. Is it really like that? So, the monolithic construction of the house has the following advantages:
- Since the monolithic structure is an integral part, the entire building has a higher strength, which is not so prone to destruction (e.g. during an earthquake).
- Due to the fact that there are no seams in the box, the building will become warmer.
- You can build a monolithic house at any time of the year.
- It won't take that long.
- The material costs are lower than in conventional buildings.
- You can build a curved building.
- If tondite, perlite or sawdust is added to the solution, the design will be light.
- The exterior of a monolithic house can be different.
- Wonderful sound insulation.
- The same shrinkage of the hut does not lead to cracks.
As you know, nothing can be perfect. Monolithic construction has disadvantages:
- To start this build you will need a concrete pump and it will need to be rented (but you can do it yourself).
- The monolithic building with solid formwork is well insulated from heat, so there is a lot of moisture in the house. Ventilation is therefore required.
- If you use expanded polystyrene, you know that it is an environmentally friendly material as it can release harmful substances into the air when burned.
- If you are pouring a monolithic slab, you will need additional scaffolding.
- You will need a grounding because the walls are made of metal.
Back to the table of contents
How to choose a building material
Before you start building a monolithic house, you should decide what material you want to build it from. There are several of them: concrete, reinforced concrete, expanded concrete, slag concrete, sawdust concrete, wood concrete, foam concrete. Now often began to use wood concrete, i. H. Wood concrete.And they called him for a reason. It consists of wood chips (80%), cement (strength) and a chemical additive. Arbolit belongs to the group of lightweight concretes. It has many advantages due to which it is considered very popular among other materials.
What are the advantages of wood concrete? Before building a house of wood-concrete with your own hands, get acquainted with the advantages:
- This material has great strength. Wood-concrete blocks can withstand heavy loads, so such buildings can be two or three stories high.
- Arbolit has been in operation for a long time, it does not support the process of decay. Mushrooms do not form in their structure.
- It holds warm air well, so a wood-concrete house has a high level of thermal insulation.
- Good sound insulation due to the porous structure.
- Excellent refractory performance.
- Maintains stable humidity, as the wood-concrete structure allows perfect air passage.
- The low weight of the block allows you to build houses without a strong foundation.
- Thanks to the excellent adhesion, you can combine wood concrete with other components.
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How to build a monolithic wood-concrete house
The do-it-yourself house made of wood-concrete begins with the laying of the foundation stone. The big plus of this material is that it can be placed on any type of foundation, since the Arbolit wall will not crack, even if it sags. This can be explained by the fact that blocks of wood concrete differ from others in strength. But there is one minus: there is poor moisture resistance of this building material. To protect the blocks from moisture, you need to waterproof the foundation. This can be done in several ways: raise the foundation itself about 50 cm above the ground or make a half-meter-high brick substrate.
Scheme of aluminum formwork for a monolithic house.
Choose your preferred method. Build the formwork from the boards. Pour sand on the bottom of the pit (200mm), press it flat and lay it waterproof. Lay reinforcement in the pit and pour concrete. Then seal the foundation floor with a tamper.
Next, put the blocks on a lime solution in which you need to add some cement. Follow these tips to get the walls properly laid. A wood-concrete house will only maintain heat if the structure of the bridges is not cold. To avoid them, you can break the seam from the solution with wooden boards. Wood concrete is also good at absorbing moisture, that is, it quickly absorbs water in a cement solution. To prevent this from happening, use slightly dried blocks, moisten them well before laying, or make a very liquid solution.
Remember to put a protective top coat on the outside of the wall.
Monolithic technology means construction directly in the system by pouring concrete into the formwork. This technology, like any other, has its advantages and disadvantages.
The advantages of building houses monolithically:
- monolithic construction implies the integrity and unity of the entire structure, which increases the strength properties of the entire house;
- the lack of seams makes the house much warmer;
- monolithic houses can be built on different types of soil at any time of the year;
- savings, high speed in the construction of structures;
- the possibility of erecting structures of any shape, the walls can be finished with various materials, the shrinkage of the building will be uniform, and this will eliminate the appearance of cracks.
There are also disadvantages associated with the monolithic construction:
pouring cement requires a concrete pump, which is quite expensive. Mandatory grounding of the entire house is required, since the walls are made of reinforced concrete with conductive fittings.
Therefore, we can say that in general, monolithic building is a great option for any person who decides to build a house with their own hands. It's worth going into more detail.
DIY monolithic house construction
However, nothing is impossible, so a monolithic house can be built in person. The project of a monolithic house can be completed independently or downloaded from the Internet or ordered from a special design office. In any case, it is necessary to calculate the strength of the load-bearing walls and their load, as well as the required thickness of the mortar and the amount of insulation.
After the project is completely ready, you can start working with the foundation. If you plan to build a basement, the foundation can be taped. Most often, a pile tape foundation is built and made watertight. Next, the construction of a monolithic house with your own hands and removable formwork will be described, since today this option is considered the best. You can build houses with solid formwork.
The formwork itself consists of panels with a size of 30 to 50 millimeters. If the temperature in the area where the construction is carried out is below -30 degrees, then it is better to choose the thickness of the panels.
- Metal ties with screws are attached at the bottom. This is done so that the shields do not open after the solution is poured. From above, all shields must be fastened with wooden panels or with the same steel screed.
- Furthermore, depending on the project, a reinforcement mesh or frame is inserted into the formwork.
- Now you can start making sawdust concrete.
- To do this, 8 parts of dry sawdust, one part of cement, two parts of sand and three parts of lime are taken.
- Cement is mixed with sand.
- Separately, you need to mix lime with sawdust.
- Only then can both mixtures be thoroughly mixed with one another.
- In this case, it is necessary to gradually add water to the mixture. Therefore, there should be enough water to prevent it from flowing out of the solution.
- Now the resulting solution can be poured into the formwork with a layer of 20 centimeters. The entire mixture is thoroughly mixed with a vibrator and pierced by rods to gently ram the solution. After tamping, the solution remains to harden for about a day.
- Then you can fill the next level in the same way. This continues until the formwork is almost full.
- To make the further work easier, it is worth leaving a distance of 10-15 centimeters from the top. The above-mentioned formwork can only be rearranged after approx. 3-5 days. The solution should freeze all the time. In this case, the formwork must be protected from sun and rain.
- After all the walls have been erected, the concrete must be given for about a month to allow it to fully harden. Only then will further work related to the arrangement of floors and roofs be carried out. All floors must protrude at least 20 centimeters above the walls.
- When the sawdust concrete is completely dry, the walls can be insulated from the outside if necessary. Warm plaster of paris, which can be applied with a layer of up to 50 millimeters, is ideal for this. It is an excellent water and heat insulator that perfectly releases steam at the same time.
Thus, the construction of a monolithic house with your own hands can be considered completed. Apparently there is nothing supernatural in this process. Many have long preferred to engage in this type of construction without the involvement of third party organizations and individuals.
DIY monolithic building technology
Removable formwork is always designed individually for the house or hut. This is due to the fact that monolithic houses can be of various shapes. The formwork must exactly repeat all the outlines of the building. Usually wood or metal is used to make the formwork. You can find options that are made of plastic, plywood. This does not change the meaning of the work.
In this case, the width of the empty layer formed between the formwork should be equal to the width of the wall. This thickness depends on many different factors. Most important are the construction area and the thermal conductivity of the concrete mix.
Formwork panels are attached with various fasteners. The optimal solution are nuts, washers and studs. To make it easier to remove the formwork after work, special corrugated pipes must be placed on the studs, which must not come into contact with concrete.
When building a monolithic house, not only ordinary cement mortar is poured, but also the possibility of using other mixtures with lower thermal conductivity. These include: expanded clay, cinder block, sawdust and so on. All of these materials are also widely used in the construction of such houses and cottages.
Using one of them, walls are obtained that have good indicators of heat retention and vapor permeability. However, there are also disadvantages to using such substitutes. Walls can't take too much stress.
A very important point is the reinforcement of the walls. For these purposes, you can use an ordinary reinforcement mesh. However, it is best if it is a reinforcement frame.
All at once, you don't have to pour concrete more than 50 centimeters. Casting can only be continued after the first layer has hardened. Concrete compaction is best done with deep vibrators. Particular attention should be paid to the corners of the building.
After the concrete has hardened, the formwork must be moved higher. This happens until all the walls have been erected. In order for the concrete to harden completely, it has to settle for about 4 to 5 weeks. Work on the insulation and decoration of the house or hut follows.
Any of these materials can now be bought in specialized construction stores without any particular problems. Choosing a particular one depends on the person's desires and financial capabilities. For those who want to save money, mineral wool is best, and for those who love comfort and aesthetics, expanded polystyrene.
You can also use the option of the so-called fountain facade. If it is used outside the concrete wall, a recess is made, then everything is covered with bricks or tiles. After that, the entire free space is filled with insulation. In this case, Ecowool or expanded clay can be used as insulation.
The advantage of this technology is that a monolithic house is preserved as environmentally friendly and breathable. Minus - effort in the assembly and disassembly of the formwork. For those who do not want to spend extra time on it, technology for building a monolithic house with solid formwork has been developed. However, this option is not ideal. The choice in each case depends on the preferences of the person and their experience in the construction work.
Monolithic DIY house video
House construction with fixed formwork
In addition to traditional construction methods, a relatively new construction system is based on the use of solid formwork. Houses using this technology are built very quickly, are economical and have a solid structure.
The essence of fixed formwork technology in the fact that in the construction of wall structures, slabs or hollow blocks are used, which are solid formwork. It can be made of different materials: polystyrene foam, polystyrene concrete, wood concrete. The following is common for the technology: when the concrete mixture fills, the formwork forms monolithic walls of the house and itself performs the functions of insulation and soundproofing.
Build with solid formwork differs in extreme simplicity. All blocks have standard basic lengths, heights and thicknesses. Due to the precise geometric dimensions and the interlocking joints, the structural elements are installed “dry” without the use of binding solutions.
Build a house with solid formworkIt is possible on any traditional foundation, however, a monolithic foundation or a foundation prefabricated from concrete blocks is preferred. In the latter case, it is necessary to carry out a monolithic strapping with a height of at least 300 mm, in which steel anchors with a diameter of at least 10 mm are built. Anchors are required to connect walls with reinforcement and to create a rigid spatial structural scheme.
Laying the concrete mass begins with the first row of wall blocks. Experts advise not to hurry: for laying and filling a section of concrete, mix a section of wall with a height of no more than four blocks (0.75 m). First the corners of the building and the outer holes are filled, and then the middle part of the wall. This avoids disrupting the geometry of the entire building. Fill the formwork with concrete mix and check the alignment of the wall with a plumb line. As long as the concrete has not hardened, it can be adjusted.
Lungs polystyrene foam and styrofoam concrete are used in almost all types of low-rise buildings. Including construction with fixed formwork technology. With the desire and some skills, it is quite possible to build a house from styrofoam blocks yourself.
Wall blocks are unusually light: the weight of the Simprolit block is no more than 7 kg
The popular monolithic construction system made of expanded polystyrene is "Izod"of polystyrene concrete - "Simprolit". Both technologies are based on the use of wall blocks with continuous cavities. The surrounding structure is assembled from the blocks and filled with reinforcement and concrete. As a result, a frame of columns and lintels is formed inside the wall, the bearing capacity of which is determined by the brand of concrete and the cross-section of the reinforcement.
Important: before filling the cavity of the blocks with concrete, lay communications - electrical lighting and communication cables, water supply and ventilation pipes.
For laying floors in the upper part of the wall, a reinforced concrete tape is formed, on which floor slabs or wooden beams are laid. In the monolithic ceiling device, the strapping belt and the floor slab form a single structure.
As a result of two technological operations (installation of wall blocks and installation of ceilings), in a month and a half to two months, a house is built, which is a rigid spatial frame structure framed by a heat and sound insulating shell. After installing the roof structure, the box of such a warm house is ready to complete the work and connect internal communications.
The most suitable material for concreting walls is concrete with a fine granite fraction and a tensile strength of 200 kg / cm². Although the project may consider different concrete depending on the static structural analysis. In order to maintain the estimated water-cement ratio and the actual saving of binder, a plasticizer must be added to the prepared concrete.
How to build
Hollow blocks with grooves and protrusions are assembled as parts of a children's designer. The first row is installed on the prepared surface of the foundation, the blocks are fixed with metal elements - reinforced - and during the erection of the structure they are filled with concrete mix. If necessary, fit every 3-4 rows in the grooves of the blocks for horizontal reinforcement.
Due to the fact that both the external and internal walls of the "cake" in which the monolithic concrete will be poured are made of material, which in itself is excellent insulation, the walls of the house do not need additional thermal insulation.
The wall with a thickness of 290 mm in terms of its thermophysical and soundproofing indicators is equivalent to one and a half meters of masonry. At the same time, it is being built much faster and cheaper.
Light polystyrene foam is good insulation, does not disintegrate, does not absorb moisture, but is vapor and airtight. Therefore, in such a house, it is necessary to install a forced ventilation system.
Installation of Simprolit blocks (polystyrene concrete)
Technology for building houses based on solid formwork made of chip cement panels Basically similar to the method of installing polystyrene blocks. Wood cement panels only play the role of building envelopes.
Building materials were manufactured and patented in Europe more than 60 years ago. Durisol - hollow cement blocks. Each block consists of two parallel plates connected by jumpers. For load-bearing walls, blocks are used in which about half of the interior is occupied by a thermal insulator - expanded polystyrene. For example, for blocks that are 375 mm thick, the insulation thickness is 175 mm. Use uninsulated blocks for interior walls.
Cement - particle block Durisol
installation wood cementblocks
Under the first block layer, waterproof insulation is placed on the foundation, which protects the chip concrete walls of the blocks from soil moisture. The first row requires precise horizontal and vertical styling. If there are slight irregularities, the blocks can be leveled with cement mortar or with wedges. After laying four rows, the blocks are poured with concrete up to a height of approx. 100 mm below the upper edge of the walls. The outer and inner walls of concrete bars are erected at the same time.
Dry laying with bandage 250 mm. The joining of corners is done with interchangeable corner blocks. Concrete bars should extend the full height of the floor, especially in the pane windows. The vertical and horizontal reinforcement is carried out depending on the project, the reinforcement of the openings (windows, doors) is mandatory.
Another option Fixed formwork is chip cement panels (Velox technology). Such formwork is a wood-cement board with a thickness of 35 mm and a size of 2000 x 500 mm, which are connected to one another by metal ties. Exterior and interior walls are made of panels. The properties of wood in wood chip panels are completely retained: they are perfectly sawn and processed.
Fixed formwork has two options. A plate with a glued insulation layer made of polystyrene foam is used as the outer plate, the inner wall of the plate is without insulation (it can be hollow boxes or just plates).
When forming the wall structure, the panels are manually assembled in pairs parallel to each other and fastened with cable ties and nails. Installation is carried out along the straps up to the level of the floor. The reinforcement is installed in the cavity between the slabs, and each floor of the structure is filled with concrete in two stages. Such a “cake” is a finished wall: monolithic concrete serves as a load-bearing structural element, polystyrene foam is excellent insulation, and wood-cement panels are an even basis for any surface.
Block diagram of the fixed Velox formwork 1. Nail-bound floor connection 2. Double-sided connection 3. One-sided connection 4. Heat-insulated Velox WS-EPS panel 5. Nails 6. Fastenings via window and door openings 7. Velox WS panel 8. Velox WSD panel 9. Cable harness fittings 10. Slopes 11. Concreting 12. Screeds for concreting the foundation
Lightweight concrete (foam, gas, expanded clay or polystyrene concrete) is used as a filler. In order to strengthen the load-bearing capacity of the walls in the formwork, internal columns filled with heavy concrete are fenced in with a certain step. This is particularly important with windows and doors.
We get: the outer formwork panel with a layer of expanded polystyrene inside the wall - a monolithic concrete frame that will provide the necessary strength of the building, and as a result, a structure that does not require additional insulation. A 32 cm thick thermal resistance wall corresponds to a 2.3 m high wall.
The “Technoblock” system of the non-removable modular formwork does not require any further post-processing. Each of these technoblocks consists of a front and an inner concrete slab made of vibration casting, which are connected to one another by plastic screed. The cable ties are attached to L-shaped metal hooks that are screwed into the nuts of the concrete slabs.
The texture of the facade panel can be different: smooth, imitating brick or masonry. For wall insulation, a second or two is installed in the block. Polystyrene foam 5 mm thick. Technoblocks are laid like conventional non-removable formwork, connected in a row by cable ties. Metal fittings, communication pipes, embedded elements for creating openings are placed in the interior of the blocks and poured with concrete. A finished house is assembled by two or three people in a matter of days.
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