Why do Austronesian Polynesians look like Chinese

Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages form a very widespread language family with a total of around 1150 languages ​​spoken by around 300 million people. In terms of the number of languages, Austronesian is only surpassed by the African Niger-Congo; in terms of the number of speakers, it is the fifth largest language family in the world. Among the language families, Austronesian is only surpassed by the Indo-European languages ​​in terms of its area from Madagascar to Easter Island, from Taiwan to New Zealand. The science that deals with the Austronesian languages ​​and the cultures of their speakers is called Austronesian Studies.

Distribution area of ​​the Austronesian languages

The term Austronesian was coined by the Austrian ethnologist Wilhelm Schmidt and is derived from lat.oyster "Südwind" as well as gr.nêsos "Island".

Original home and expansion of the Austronesians

Proto-Austronesian

A first attempt to reconstruct the sound system and the vocabulary of the original Austronesian language ("Uraustronesian") was made by Otto Dempwolff in the 1930s - partly on the basis of research by Renward Brandstetter. In the 1970s Otto Christian Dahl made another attempt to reconstruct the "Proto-Austronesian" (see literature).

Relationships with other language families

According to Paul K. Benedict (1912–1997), together with the Tai-Kadai language family, they form the Austro-Tai macro family. This thesis is considered plausible in specialist circles, especially based on recent studies by Sagart (2004) and Ostapirat (2005, 2018).[1][2][3][4][5]

Vocabulary in comparison

Below is a table comparing thirteen words as spoken in the Austronesian languages ​​spoken in Taiwan, the Philippines, the Mariana Islands, Indonesia, Malaysia, East Timor, Papua, New Zealand, Hawaii, Madagascar, Borneo and Tuvalu:

German one two three four person House dog road Day New we What Fire
Americancecay tosa tolo sepat tamdaw luma wacu lalan cidal faroh daycare uman namal
Puyumasa dua telu pat taw rumah soan dalan wari vekar mi amanai apue,
asi
Tagalogisa dalawa tatlo apat tao bahay aso then araw bago tayo ano apoy
Central Bolanosaro duwa tulo apat tawo harong ayam dalan aldaw ba-go daycare ano kalayo
Rinconada Bikolanoəsad darwā tolō əpat tawō baləy ayam raran aldəw bāgo kitā onō kalayō
CebuanoUnited States,
isa
duha tulo upat tawo balay iro dalan adlaw bag-o daycare unsa kalayo
Waray-WarayUnited States duha tulo upat tawo balay ayam,
I do
dalan adlaw bag-o daycare anu kalayo
Hiligaynonisa duha tatlo apat tawo balay I do dalan adlaw bag-o daycare ano kalayo
Aklanonisaea,
zambilog, uno
daywa,
DOS
tatlo,
tres
ap-at,
kwatro
tawo baeay ayam dayan adlaw bag-o daycare ano kaeayo
Kinaray-asara darwa tatlo apat tawo balay ayam aragyan adlaw bag-o daycare ano kalayo
Tausughambuuk duwa do upat dew bay iru ' Dan adlaw ba-gu kitaniyu unu kayu
Maranaoisa dowa t'lo phat taw walay aso lalan gawi'e bago tano tonaa apoy
Kapampanganmetung adwa atlu apat dew bale asu dalan aldo bayu ikatamu well api
Pangasiniansakey dua,
duara
talo,
talora
apat,
apatira
too abong aso dalan ageo balo sikatayo anto pool
Ilokanomaysa dua tallo uppat tao balay aso dalan aldaw baro dateo ania apoy
Ivatanasa dadowa tatdo apat tao vahay chito rarahan araw va-yo yaten ango apoy
Ibanagtadday dua tallu appa ' tolay balay kitu dalan aggaw bagu sittam anni afi
Yogadtata addu tallu appat tolay binalay atu daddaman agaw bagu sikitam gani afuy
Gaddangantet addwa tallo appat tolay balay atu dallan aw bawu ikkanetam sanenay afuy
Tbolisotu lewu tlu fat dew gunu ohu lan kdaw lomi tekuy tedu ofih
Malaysatu dua tiga[6]empat orange rumah,
balai
anjing jalan hari baru daycare apa,
anu
api
Javanesesiji loro têlu[7]papat uwòng,
tiyang[7]
omah,
griyå,
dalêm[7]
asu såbå[7]dinå,
dintên[7]
anyar,
énggal[7]
adhéwé,
slirå piyambak[7]
åpå,
anu,
punåpå[7]
gêni[7]
Sundanesehiji dua tilu opat urang imah anjing jalan poe anyar,
enggal
arurang naon seuneu
Achinesesa duwa lhèë peuët ureuëng rumoh,
balèë
asèë ret uroë barô (geu) tanyoë peuë apuy
Minangkabauciek duo tigo ampek urang rumah anjiang labuah,
jalan
hari baru awak apo api
Lampungsai khua telu pak jelema lamban kaci ranlaya khani baru kham api apui
Buginesesedi dua tellu eppa dew bola asu lalen esso baru idi aga api
Temuansatuk duak tigak empat uwang,
eang
gumah,
umah
anying,
koyok
jalan aik,
haik
bahauk kitak apak apik
Batak Tobasada dua tolu opat halak jabu biang dalan ari baru hita Aha api
Yawiso you where tigo pak oghe ghumoh,
dumoh
anjing jale aghi baghu kito gapo api
Chamorrohåcha,
maisa
hugua tulu fatfat taotao guma ga'lågu chålan ha'åni nuebu hita håfa guafi
Motuta,
tamona
rua toi hani dew ruma sisia dala dina matamata ita,
ai
dahaka lahi
Maoritahi rua toru wha tangata whare kuri era ra hou taua Aha ahi
Tuvaluantasi lua tolu fa toko fale pen ala,
do
aso fou tāua a afi
Hawaiiankahi lua kolu Ha kanaka hale 'īlio ala ao hou kākou Aha ahi
Banjareseasa duwa talu ampat urang rūmah hadupan heko hǎri hanyar kami apa api
Malagasyisa roa telo efatra olona trano alika lalana andro vaovao isika inona afo
Dusuniso duo tolu apat tulun walai,
lamin
tasu ralan tadau wagu tokou onu / nu tapui
Kadazaniso duvo tohu apat do hamin tasu lahan tadau vagu tokou onu,
nunu
tapui
Momoguniso duvo tolu,
tolzu
apat tulun,
tulzun
valai,
valzai
tasu dalan tadau vagu tokou nunu tapui,
apui
TombonuwoI do duo tolu opat lobuw waloi asu ralan runat wagu toko onu apui
Ibansatu,
sa,
siti,
sigi
dua tiga empat orange,
urang
rumah ukui,
uduk
jalai hari baru kitai nama api
Sarawak Malaysatu,
sigek
dua tiga empat orange rumah asuk jalan ari baru daycare apa api
Terengganu Malayse duwe term pak oghang ghumoh,
dumoh
anjing for a long time aghi baghu kite mende,
ape,
gape,
nape
api

The main branches of Austronesian

The Austronesian languages ​​are classified into ten main branches in current research. Of these, nine branches are only represented in Taiwan (Formosa languages, 330,000 speakers), the tenth - by far the most important in terms of the number of speakers - is the Malayo-Polynesian branch that spreads from Madagascar to Easter Island.

Austronesian million languages

There are around 30 Austronesian languages ​​with at least one million speakers, 10 of which are spoken in the Philippines, 18 in Malaysia and Indonesia, and one in Madagascar. All Austronesian million languages ​​belong to the subgroup of Malayo-Polynesian and are listed in the article Malayo-Polynesian languages.

literature

  • Alexander Adelaar, Nikolaus P. Himmelmann: The Austronesian Languages ​​of Asia and Madagascar. Routledge, London 2005. ISBN 0-7007-1286-0.
  • Peter Bellwood: Early agriculture and the expansion of the Austronesian. In: Spectrum of science. Heidelberg 1991, 9. ISSN0170-2971.
  • Peter Bellwood: Prehistory of Indo-Malaysian Archipelago. Honolulu 1997, ISBN 0-8248-1883-0.
  • Paul K. Benedict: Austro-Thai Language and Culture. HRAF Press, New Haven 1975, ISBN 0-87536-323-7.
  • Renward Brandstetter: The relationship of Malagasy to Malay. In: Festschrift for the opening of the new canton school building in Lucerne. Räber, Luzern 1893 (Malaio-Polynesische Forschungen II), pp. 65-107.
  • Renward Brandstetter: An Introduction to Indonesian Linguistics, being four essays by Renward Brandstetter, translated by C. O. Blagden. Royal Asiatic Society, London 1916 (Asiatic Society Monographs 15).
  • Otto Christian Dahl: Proto-Austronesian. Student literature, Lund 1973.
  • Otto Dempwolff: Comparative phonology of the Austronesian vocabulary. In: Journal of Native Languages. Volumes 15, 17 and 19. Berlin 1934–38.
  • John Lynch: Pacific Languages. An Introduction. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1998, ISBN 0-8248-1898-9 (covers the Oceanic-Austronesian, Papuan and Australian languages).
  • Wilhelm Schmidt: The linguistic relations of Oceania (Melanesia, Polynesia, Micronesia and Indonesia) in their meaning for ethnology. In: Announcements from the Anthropological Society in Vienna, 1899, pp. 245-258.
  • Wilhelm Schmidt: The language families and language areas of the world. Winter, Heidelberg 1926, ISBN 3-87118-276-1.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ↑ Sagart, Laurent. 2004. "The higher phylogeny of Austronesian and the position of Tai – Kadai." Oceanic Linguistics 43. 411–440
  2. ↑ Gerhard Jäger: Support for linguistic macrofamilies from weighted sequence alignment. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Volume 112, No 41, October 13, 2015, ISSN0027-8424, S.12752-12757, doi: 10.1073 / pnas.1500331112, PMID 26403857, PMC 4611657 (free full text).
  3. ^ Reid, LA (2006). "Austro-Tai Hypotheses". Pp. 740-741 in Keith Brown (editor in chief), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd edition
  4. ↑ Ostapirat, Weera. 2005. "Kra-Dai and Austronesian: Notes on phonological correspondences and vocabulary distribution." Laurent Sagart, Roger Blench & Alicia Sanchez-Mazas, eds. The Peopling of East Asia: Putting Together Archeology, Linguistics and Genetics. London: Routledge Curzon, pp. 107-131.
  5. ↑ Ostapirat, Weera. 2018. "Macrophyletic Trees of East Asian Languages ​​Re examined." In Ritsuko Kikusawa and Lawrence A. Reid (eds.) Let's talk about trees. Osaka: Senri Ethnological Studies, Minpaku. doi: 10.15021 / 00009006
  6. ↑ In the inscription of Kedukan Bukit, the numerals are tlu ratus than 300, tlu named as 3. According to http://www.wordsense.eu/telu/, 3 telu, in both Malay and Indonesian languages; however finds telu rarely used.
  7. abcdefGHiPiwulang Basa Jawa Pepak, S.B. Pramono, hal 148, 2013