Which factors contribute to population density?
5. Population distribution
The world population is distributed very differently across the individual continents. This unequal distribution can mainly occur between the Industrialized countries on the one, and developing and emerging countries on the other hand as well as between coastal regions and landlocked states to be watched.
The most populous countries in the world are those People's Republic of China, India and the USA. In these states alone live about \ (44 \) mankind. What is striking here is that only the USA can be viewed as a modern industrial state. The other countries are either developing or emerging countries.
Fig. 1 Proportions of the continents in the world population
As you can see from this graph Asia by far the most populous continent. Around \ (60 \) of the world's population live in Asia, followed by Africa with \ (15 \), America with \ (14.5 \), Europe with \ (11 \) and Australia (with Oceania) with \ (0, 5 \). It is also noticeable that among the \ (10 \) most populous countries in the world there is only one industrial state, the USA.
Still \ (1950 \) the industrialized nations made up about a third of the world population. Today their share is just under \ (20 \). While \ (1985 \) there were about as many people in Africa as in Europe (\ (480 \) million) we already count \ (650 \) million people in Africa today. According to some forecasts, \ (8.5 \) billion people will be living on earth by \ (2025 \). Of every \ (100 \) additional people, only seven will live in industrialized countries, \ (93 \) will grow up in third world countries.
Unequal population distribution between coastal regions and landlocked countries
Coastal regions or areas on large rivers show one far higher population density on as landlocked. This can be justified primarily by economic, traffic-related and political conditions.
The Netherlands is an example of this. With \ (15 \) million inhabitants and a population density of \ (360 \) people / km², this coastal state has a far higher population and density than Hungary or Austria, for example, without access to the sea. With a national area twice as large as the Netherlands, Hungary has only \ (10 \) million inhabitants and a population density of \ (107 \) people / km². Austria only has a population density of \ (104 \) people / km². This is primarily due to the sparsely populated alpine regions.
Unequal population distribution due to rural exodusBy rural exodus one understands that Migration from rural areas to cities, mostly in the industrial cities. There is rural exodus in industrialized countries as well as in emerging and developing countries. In Austria, the Waldviertel, Burgenland and the inner-Alpine regions are considered emigration areas. Cities like Vienna, Graz and Innsbruck are still growing.
Fig. 2 The population density, here using the example of Europe, is higher in coastal regions and on large rivers than in landlocked states
The most important cause of the rural exodus is that Mechanization in Agriculture and the associated loss of jobs. The consequence is an increasing one unemployment in rural areas which, however, can only partially be intercepted by the newly established industrial companies. Further reasons for the rural exodus are better education and training opportunities in the city. Often the reason for moving to the city is simply the dream of a better life.
However, often this dream ends in unemployment and casual work. Prostitution and crime are often the only options for immigrants in the cities of emerging and developing countries. impoverishment and social tensions are the consequence.
The urbanization caused by rural exodus (urbanization) represents a global process that has advanced furthest in industrialized countries. Urbanization has led to a plethora of problems: social isolation, high traffic density, air pollution, desertification of inner cities, etc.
In the cities of the developing countries there is an acute housing shortage due to the massive rural exodus. The consequences are widespread Slums (Slum neighborhoods on the outskirts of large cities) in which the underprivileged sections of the population live with inadequate sanitary facilities and mostly in intolerably cramped conditions in social isolation.
Fig. 3 Slum in India's capital New Dehli
Due to the uncontrolled growth of the slums, the big cities of the third world must be preserved Megacities become. Between \ (1965 \) and \ (1985 \) the proportion of the urban population in the Third World rose from \ (660 \) million to \ (1.5 \) billion - an increase of \ (120 \).
Fig. 1 https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:AnteilWeltbevoelkerung.svg (13.05.2016)
Fig. 2 https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/EU_NUTS_2_population_density_2007.svg/1280px-EU_NUTS_2_population_density_2007.svg.png (May 19, 2016)
Fig. 3 https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/MathareValleySlum.jpg (May 18, 2016)
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